Denim and its various items like pants, shirts, jackets, belts, caps, etc, are the most preferred clothing for today’s youth. This study discusses compositions and methods of reducing or preventing back staining of indigo dyes on the weft yarn and pocket of denim garments. The dye, as it is removed from the denim material, post treatment with cellulase or by a conventional washing process may cause ‘back staining’ or ‘redeposition’ on the denim material; e.g : re-coloration of blue threads and blue coloration of white threads, resulting in less contrast between the blue and white threads.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2 HISTORY OF DENIM
2.3 DENIM FABRIC CONSTRUCTION
2.4 FABRIC PARTICULARS
2.5 DYEING MECHENISM INVOLVED IN DENIM
2.6 DIFERENT TREATMENTS OF DENIM
2.7 BACK STAINING
2.8 CHEMISTRY OF BACK STAINING
2.9 CHEMISTRY OF ANTI BACK STAINING
3. PLAN OF WORK
1. DESIZE RECIPES
2. ANTI BACK TREATMENT
3. GRADING BY GREY SCALE
5. RESULT AND CONCLOSION
Denim garments are looked at as a major trend setter by our youth. The spread of denim culture all over the world brought with it a trend of fast changing fashions. One after another several washes were introduced such as stone wash, acid wash, moon wash etc. Over the last decade, India has probably seen the most dramatic and exciting changes in the washing of denim garments. As per the denim garments export market, this high quality garment has superior aesthetics and great value for price. In terms of the quality aspect, back staining plays a vital role in improving the appearance of the denim garment.
Back staining: Back staining implies soiling of the weft thread and the pocket lining by detached indigo or its reduced leuco form. Back staining mainly occurs during desizing or stone washing or enzyme stone washing.
Back staining means a tendency of the released indigo dye to redeposit on the Surface of the fibers in the literature as it is claimed that back staining is dependent on the pH and for the type of enzyme. According to our results back Staining depends only indirectly on pH.
Originally denim consists of indigo dyed warp and white weft. Levis Strauss, a Bavarian who immigrated to the united state, is the founder of denim. Today denim is also manufactured in other dying technologies in different colors and has taken an important place in fashion.
HISTORY OF DENIM
Denim is more than a cotton fabric; it inspires strong opinions from historians, designers, teenagers, movie stars, reporters and writers. In 1969 a writer for American Fabrics magazine declared, “Denim is one of the world’s oldest fabrics, yet it remains eternally young.” If continuous use of and interest in an item makes it “eternally young,” then denim certainly qualifies.
Legend and fact are also interwoven when scholars discuss the origin of the name denim. Most reference books say that denim is an English corruption of the French phrase “serge de Nimes”; a serge fabric from the town of Nimes in France. However, some scholars have begun to question this explanation.
DENIM FABRIC CONSTRUCTION
Denim fabric can be woven on projectile weaving machine, air jet machine, rapier weaving machine. Lower quantity denim can be produced on heavy duty fast reed automatic looms between blue warp and white weft, on irregularity on weft yarn are distinctly promised. Difference in twist in package outer surface to core can result in regular light weft bands to get a better quality with respect to weft are preferable on looms.
The cotton denim structure is based on a 3/2 S-twill weave, although 2/1 twill is also included in the textile manufacturer’s range, with a 3/1...