Anthropogenic Impact on Marine Environment and Consequent Pollution- International Perspective

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2.Impact of Anthropogenic activities on marine environment
3.Degradation of marine environment
4.Pollution of the Marine Environment
5.Classification of marine pollution
6.Effects of Marine pollution
7.International Instruments designed for the protection and preservation of marine environment 8.Possible Mitigative Measures

An extreme range of environmental problems is now the subject of serious international concern. These include atmospheric pollution, marine pollution, global warming and ozone depletion, the dangers of nuclear and other extra hazardous substances and threatened wild life species. Some of the major objectives of International environmental law are the protection of the flora and fauna, the preservation of ecological balance and the conservation of the diversity of species. The pollution of the atmosphere and of the seas, the loss of species, the danger of nuclear power, and the corresponding environmental, social and health problems are only a few among the aspects, which influenced the international community in aiming to create a legal and effective system, which at the end protects the human beings from an environmental disaster.

Impact of Anthropogenic activities on marine environment
The health of the world’s oceans and marine life is degrading rapidly as a result of excess human activities. Over 80% of all marine pollution originates from land-based sources which are primarily industrial, agricultural and urban.

Anthropogenic impact on the water environment shall be defined as a cumulative manifestation of all kinds of human activity. At least two reasons allow us to consider pollution as the main, most widespread, and most dangerous factor of anthropogenic impact on the hydrosphere. First, pollution accompanies most kinds of human activities, including offshore oil and gas production and marine oil transportation. Second, in contrast with land ecosystems, in the water environment, pollutants quickly spread over large distances from the sources of pollution. One of the typical features of marine pollution is global spreading of a number of contaminants. Another important feature of marine pollution is the existence of increased pollution levels in the enclosed seas and coastal waters as compared with the open ocean. Human activities linked to the sea have taken a prominent place, particularly for the coastal collectivities; however it highly depends on the health and productivity of the marine environment Understanding the elements of the global oceans, their biological, chemical and physical processes and the linkages amongst and between them, is critical to understanding how anthropogenic activities affect and impact the oceans and coasts, and to developing effective management protocols to protect the oceans, coasts and their resources for future generations. Degradation of the marine environment due to human activities is likely to be increasing due to increased shipping, ports, marinas, coastal housing and coastal development. The impact of human activities has resulted in pollution of every square mile of Earth's oceans. The pollution of water bodies affects the marine life and humans alike. In the present time, marine life is seriously getting affected by the oil spills, garbage dumping, accumulation of toxic materials and industrial wastes in the ocean. Since oceans are the biggest natural sources of water, taking care of them and the marine life thriving in the water bodies is the responsibility of every human being.

Degradation of marine environment
In general, degradation of the marine environment refers to damage caused to marine ecosystems and species and are considered as direct and indirect effects of various human activities. (i)Direct effects of humans on marine habitats and biota includes dredging and dumping (reclamation), removal of biota (through fishing), and construction of...
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