May 21, 2010
Be the Solution to Ocean Pollution
Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience to minimize the amount of waste they contribute to the ocean litter and pollution
Central Idea: The quality of the ocean and health of sea life is greatly impacted by the contents that go into the sea, so the people of this world should limit the amount of litter and pollutants that potentially contribute to this problem.
I.Attention Getter: Breathe slowly. Do not hold your breath. Equalize early and often. Stay off the seafloor. These are a few of the thoughts going through my mind while descending on my first open-water dive in Monterey, California. I hear the eerie silence, interrupted only by the sound of water surging past me. As the salty water trickles through my regulator and into my mouth, I feel the cold rush toward my bare face, the only exposed part of my body. I look through my goggles and see absolutely stunning animals and organisms that most people will only see in books and pictures. I see coral and kelp, fish and sea stars, just swaying with the ocean - their home.
II.Listener Relevance Link: It is their home that I, and many of you, use for recreation. To swim, play, surf, scuba dive, boat, and other activities. It is also their home that the world is poisoning with pollutants and toxins every minute of every day.
III.Speaker Credibility: As I observed the beauty of the ocean, I looked past the creatures and beneath the sandy sea floor. I was surprised to find some pieces of plastic and a few bottle caps, accompanied with more garbage. Although I did notice these foreign objects, there was nothing I could do at the moment. So I continued on my journey in the deep, a little disturbed at the sight I had just witnessed. This experience made me want to counter this action and enhance the quality of the ocean.
IV.Thesis: Today, I am going to talk to you about how water toxins, pollutants, and human impact affect the ocean.
(Transition: A significant problem with water toxins and pollutants are the negative effect it has on the ocean water and the marine life.)
A. Some of the most common toxins and pollutants are in a destructive group called organochlorines and include toxaphene, PCBs, DDT, dioxins, and more.
1.According to the Columbia Encyclopedia, PCBs are Polychlorinated biphenyls, which are mixtures of organic chemicals that are non-flammable, chemically stable, and have high insulating qualities, which make them ideal to use for paints, plastics, and rubber products.
2. Despite the beneficial qualities they hold, such as being an inexpensive material for everyday items, they are considered to be substances that build up in the food chain and accumulate to levels that are harmful to environmental health (www.blueoceansociety.org/plastics).
B. Step into the ocean and you will encounter everything from PCBs and dioxins to plastic bags, cigarette butts and bacteria from human waste. Sanoe Lake and Steven Jarett, authors of A guide to the surfing life, tell us that in polluted seas, ear and skin infections are common, and diseases including Hepatitis A have been known to be contracted. If this is how much contamination affects humans, just imagine the effect pollution has on smaller organisms.
C. Oil is one of the most widespread pollutants in the marine environment. Most oil spillage is caused by oil leakage in refineries, cargo ship and tanker accidents, and problems with blown out pipelines and drilling rigs.
1. A local and severe oil spill took place on November 7, 2007. A cargo vessel spilled 58,000 gallons of heavy bunker fuel into the San Francisco Bay when it hit a tower of the Bay Bridge.
a. Oiled sea birds are one of the most emotive images that come with the term oil spills. For every oiled seabird that lives long enough to be washed, many more have died at sea. The oil clogs their...