Should Animal Experimentation be justified?
Animal experimentation is an issue that many think that just risen from nowhere, but actually it has a long brief history. It goes back to the earlier centuries where goats and pigs were dissected and when animal experimentation was used to learn more about the blood circulatory system and its processes first hand in the 1600s. Centuries later, the experimentations became a bit intensive and in-depth when French chemist, Louis Pasteur infected sheep with anthrax and started to observe them to prove germ theories. This successful experiment proved that infections do not start suddenly or without a reason. This was quite an achievement because it proved that infections do not start suddenly or without cause. (Lloyd par.1) Since then testing varied greatly it still remains the similar concept. Today animal testing is utilized in make-up or other recreational use but typically, animal testing is used in the medical field for research and to learn information on how human bodies function. Although benefitting many people, they see it as cruel for the animal to be put through test after test to prove a theory. Animal testing is a controversial topic which benefits humans greatly and should be justified but, may not be necessary due to different alternatives.
There are four types of testing, or research done on animals. These are known as pure research, applied research, toxicology, and drug testing. In pure research all they do is than examining organisms and how they develop, behave, and function for extra knowledge. This is used in breeding, and behavioral experiments mostly. Applied research studies issues such as disease. This is used usually when involving genetics. “Genes may be inserted, removed, or modified, to cause the animal to exhibit symptoms which mimic a certain disease.” (Lloyd par.1) This means, in order to find out information about the disease, scientists actually give the animal the disease. After, scientists and researchers observe the animal to find out how the disease is developed in their system and how they can prevent it they can further their research and focus on humans. Another test used is toxicology. Toxicology is mainly used for drug companies to test their drugs, such as food additives, air fresheners, household chemicals and cosmetics, before they put it on the market for consumers. Out of the 3 cosmetic testing is the trickiest, and dangerous. The reason being is that it needs to be tested on the skin and face not knowing how the animal’s skin will react to it lastly; drug testing is different tests to see if it is safe enough for human use. This includes medicine, cigarettes just to name a few.
There are three main tests that all drugs need to pass on the experimental animals in order to be tested on humans. The first is metabolic tests which observe how drugs are absorbed into the body, what happens inside, and how it is emptied from the body. They use different methods in order to put it into the body. It can be inserted orally, through an IV, IP injection, or injection through the muscle. (“Animal Testing” Wordiq Online Dictionary 2010.) The second test is toxicology tests. This determines the different levels of the drug, toxic or sub-toxic and whether these levels rise over time. This is basically to double-check their safety levels and to make sure they do not worsen with time. The last test is efficacy tests. These tests are to see if the drugs worked for the disease the drug was made for. The animals being tested are given the disease and then treated by those drugs. There may be other tests needed, depending on the drug and category it falls into. (Lloyd par. 5)
Also, what most people may not know about animal testing is that the animal differs depending on the category. Much of the testing is usually done on rats or mice. But after the test, they test another animal as a precaution to...
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