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History of Civil Engineering
written by: Aggeliki K. • edited by: Lamar Stonecypher • updated: 2/3/2011 The history of civil engineering can be traced back to 4000 BC when the sole means of construction was human labor, lacking any sophisticated equipment. With advancement in all spheres of technology, civil engineering has also developed tremendously. * Manual Labor: the First Engineering Tool

Civil engineering involves the design, construction, and maintenance of works such as roads, bridges, and buildings. It's a science that includes a variety of disciplines including soils, structures, geology, and other fields. Thus the history of civil engineering is closely associated with the history of advancement in these sciences. In ancient history, most of the construction was carried out by artisans, and technical expertise was limited. Tasks were accomplished by the utilization of manual labor only, without the use of sophisticated machinery, since it did not exist. Therefore, civil engineering works could only be realized with the utilization of a large number of skilled workers over an extended period of time. * Prehistoric and Ancient Civil Engineering Structures

It might be appropriate to assume that the science of civil engineering truly commenced between 4000 and 2000 BC in Egypt when transportation gained such importance that it led to the development of the wheel. According to the historians, the Pyramids were constructed in Egypt during 2800-2400 BC and may be considered as the first large structure construction ever. The Great Wall of China that was constructed around 200 BC is considered another achievement of ancient civil engineering. The Romans developed extensive structures in their empire, including aqueducts, bridges, and dams. A scientific approach to the physical sciences concerning civil engineering was implemented by Archimedes in the third century BC, by utilizing the Archimedes Principle concerning buoyancy and the Archimedes screw...
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