Canada’s community is respected all around the world. Among many citizens in Canada, the majority are immigrants. According to a Canadian Consensus in 2001, the Canadian population is approx. 30,000,000 and immigration represented approx. 0.834% of the population growth.. These numbers continue to increase as Government Immigration policies center the immigrant growth to be on 1% of the population annually. Thousands of people choose Canada to improve their quality of life, due to the limited economic growth in their country of origin. Our detailed research on Canada’s immigration policy clearly shows the analysis of the policy, its implementation on Canada’s competitiveness and suggestions for the Canadian government to improve the immigration policy.
1. A History of Canadian Immigration
There have been major developments in Canadian immigration policy that reflect the different phases of national development and different political and administrative priorities. In May 1947-1950’s, MacKenzie King established white immigration from Europe, U.S and the Middle East. The rationale was economic development and population growth. “In relation to its stated purpose, it was very successful.” In 1962, Immigration Regulations abandoned racial discrimination and moved to a universality and admission based on skills, family reunion and humanitarian considerations. This improved Canada’s “constructive role in international affairs…Canada moved into a period of rapid economic expansion, as funds became available for the reorganization of overseas operations.” 1966-67 represented Pearson governments most urgent priorities '' manpower development. This involved the training and upgrading of the Canadian Labour force on mounting evidence that “through the sixties our labour force was one of the least skilled among industrialized nations.” This was a change in management rather than an in immigration policy itself. In October ’96, a new Department of Manpower and Immigration was created and in time opened Manpower Centers across the country to make an attempt to increase labour mobility and improve the skills of the labour force. During the post-war period, a major policy development was the deliberate association of immigration with population growth and other social and economic issues. Immigration began to affect Canada in many ways: Canada’s need for population growth and distribution, the changing needs of the Canadian labour market. A new Immigration Act in Canada was created in 1976 by then Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau. It focused on who should be allowed into Canada, not on who should be kept out. This Act came into force in 1978 along with new Immigration Regulations. This Act gave more power to the provinces to set their own immigration laws, and defined "prohibited classes" in much broader terms. Individuals who could become a burden on social welfare or health services would now be refused entry, rather than specific categories of people, i.e. homosexuals, the disabled, and so on. This Act also created alternatives to deportation for less serious criminal or medical offences. The Immigration and Refugee Protection Act came into force June 2002 and provides the Immigration Refugee Board jurisdiction to hear and decide cases on immigration and refugee matters. The Act sets out the core principles and concepts that govern Canada's immigration and refugee protection programs, including provisions relating to refugees, sponsorships and removals, detention reviews and admissibility hearings, and the jurisdiction and powers of tribunals. Evidently, immigration policy and planning was placed very firmly in the context of many areas of public policies; thus, it should continue to be in the 21st century.
3. An International Dilemma '' Critique
From a global perspective it is sometimes argued that by liberalizing immigration policy...