FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE
COURSE TITLE: INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND CONFLICT (702)
AN EXAMINATION OF THE EXTENT TO WHICH GLOBALIZATION HAS INFLUENCED THE UPSURGE OF CONFLICT IN THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM. BY
EMMANUEL OMALE 09211210018
COURSE LECTURER: DR. SULEIMAN Y. KURA
Globalization is a powerful real aspect of the new world system, and it represents one of the most influential forces in determining the future course of the planet. It has many dimensions: technological, economic, political, social, cultural, environmental, security, and others. The focus here will be on the concept of "globalization" as understood by different people and how globalization is or has influenced the upsurge of conflicts in the international system. This concept is one that has different interpretations to different people. Partly as a result of these different interpretations, there are very different reactions to "globalization," with some seeing it as a serious danger to the world economic system while others see it as advancing the world economy.
Globalization can be defined as the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa. This is a dialectical process because such local happenings may move in an obverse direction from the very distanced relations that shape them. Local transformation is as much a part of globalisation as the lateral extension of social connections across time and space (Giddens, 1990: 64). Joseph S. Nye defined globalization as a “worldwide networks of interdependence” (Nye 2003, 186). Interdependence is often fuzzy term used in a variety of conflicting ways. For the purpose of this paper, it refers to situations in which actors or events in different parts of a system affect each other. Simply put, it means mutual dependence. Such a situation is neither good nor bad in itself, and there can be more or less of it. Interdependence among nations sometimes means richer, sometimes poorer, sometimes for better, sometimes for worse as in personal relationships such as the marriage vow. These international networks according to Nye are increasingly becoming complex and their effects are increasingly unpredictable. Moreover, as in all human systems, people are often hard at work trying to outwit each other, to gain an economic, social or military advantage by acting in an unpredictable way . As a result, globalization is accompanied by pervasive uncertainty as there is continual competition between increased complexity and uncertainty on the one hand and efforts by governments, corporations and others to comprehend and manipulate to their benefit these increasingly complex interconnected systems. While globalization has been going on for centuries, its contemporary form is, according to Nye, “thicker and quicker” . Globalization today is different from the nineteenth century when European imperialism provided much of its political structure, and higher transport and communication costs meant fewer people were involved directly with people and ideas from other cultures. Many of the important differences are closely related to the increment in interconnectedness as a result of the information revolution, the liberalization and expansion of international trade, decreased role of governments in business and finance, and the ease with which technology has assisted the transfer of funds across borders. Thomas Friedman therefore argues, “contemporary globalization goes farther, faster, cheaper, and deeper” (Friedman 1999,7). Globalization has made national boundaries more porous but not irrelevant. It has also implied the shrinking of distances, but those distances have shrunk at different rates for different people, and on different issues. The common theme that runs through these definitions...