An Assessment of Maslow's & Herzberg's Need Based

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An Assessment of Maslow’s & Herzberg’s Need Based
Motivational Theories

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MGMT 5000/NA/MANAGEMENT

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Table of Contents

Abstract……………………………………………………………….page 3

Introduction……………………………………………..…………....page 3, 4

Defining Motivation…………………………………..……………...page 4

Explaining Motivational Theories……………………….………....page 5

Explaining Maslow’s Hierarchical Theory…………………….….pages 5-7

Examining Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory……………………….pages 7-9

Comparing Maslow and Herzberg’s Motivation Theories……….pages 9-12

Summary…………………………………………………………….page 12

References…………………………………………………………...pages 13, 14

Abstract
There is no doubt that employee performance is a critical part of an organization’s long-term success and sustainability; therefore understanding how to achieve maximum performance is also essential. Long gone are the days when employees were looked upon as expendable hands, merely used for the production of commodities and profit. Leaders now recognize that satisfied employees are higher performers and the life line to reaching their organization’s goals. In times past, methods of controlling employees included tough disciplinary measures and strict orders and monitoring. As more and more complaints began to erupt about the treatment of workers, more research was done into this approach. From 1924-1932, Elton Mayo, a Harvard Law Professor, conducted a significant study- the “Hawthorne Studies- into the humane treatment of employees. These studies have been credited for evolution of the human relations approach to management, and the results incited further studies into this leadership technique. Thus, Maslow and Herzberg’s theories derived from the human needs aspect of behavior, and provided further development, insight, and interest into this management method. Introduction

The focus of this paper is to contrast and compare two famous need based theories of motivation, namely- Abraham Maslow’s need hierarchy theory, and Frederick Herzberg’s two-factor theory. Although, criticism has been projected on both theoretical models; and also, other theories do exist which focus on maximizing employee behavior and motivation, considerable research, recognition and support has been credited to Maslow and Herzberg’s work. Both approaches have also been widely used to develop job designs that fit employee’s skills and needs, and to implement management principles that will: effectively influence positive employee behavior; generate employee job satisfaction and enrichment; and create desired organizational outcomes. Maslow’s theory offers a challenging look at the motivational topic from an individual and psychological approach; whereas, Herzberg views motivation from an environmental and “what people actually do” standpoint. Taking these points into consideration, we shall take a closer look into the specific components and competencies of each, and determine how understanding one’s needs relate to providing an environment which satisfies those needs, and ultimately manipulate behavior and produces high performers. Defining Motivation

Throughout the years, professionals have given many variations to explain “motivation”. To list a few, motivation has been defined as: “…the psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction; a predisposition to behave in a purposive manner to achieve specific, unmet needs; an internal drive to satisfy an unsatisfied need; and the will to achieve” (Linder, p.2).

According to John Schermerhorn, motivation is "accounting for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work." He further defines the individual’s level as the “amount of effort a...
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