Amines and Amides
Amine - an ammonia molecule (NH3) in which one or more H atoms are substituted by an alkyl or aromatic group.
Amide - an organic compound with a carbonyl functional group (C=O) bonded to a nitrogen atom.
Amines are the smaller and simpler products of the decomposition of larger and more complex organic compounds like proteins. They often have foul odours, as do many nitrogen compounds, such as the smell of rotting fish and decomposing animal tissue and are produced by bacteria.
Can be found in many biological, including amino acids and vitamins. They are also used in manufacturing pharmaceutical drugs, corrosion inhibitors in boilers and in lubricating oils, as an antioxidant for rubber and roofing asphalt, used to help protect against gamma radiation.
Primary amines have higher boiling points because they can form hydrogen bonds with each other as well as Van der Waals dispersion forces and dipole-dipole interactions. The boiling point of the secondary amines is a little lower than the corresponding primary amine with the same number of carbon atoms. Secondary amines still for hydrogen bonds but the permanent dipole on the molecule is slightly less. Tertiary amines have no hydrogen atoms attached directly to the nitrogen so hydrogen bonding between tertiary amine molecules is impossible. That is why the boiling point is much lower.
The small primary and secondary amines are very soluble in water because they can form hydrogen bonds with water. Tertiary amines do not have a high solubility because they cannot form hydrogen bonds, instead they bond using the lone pair on nitrogen. Solubility lessens as the attached hydrocarbon chains get longer, noticeably so after six carbons.
Amides are used in the plastic, rubber, paper, water and sewage industries, and are used in crayons, pencils, and inks.
Properties of Amides: The lower molecular weight amides are slightly soluble in...
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