Altering Consciousness Through Drugs

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Chapter 5
Altering Consciousness through Drugs

Psychoactive substances= drugs that have psychological effects such as stimulation or distortion of perceptions.

Stimulant=a drug that _________ the activity of the nervous system. Stimulants elevate mood, increase feelings of well-being, and increase energy and alertness.


crack cocaine=




Tobacco accounts for more deaths in the U.S. than the combined total of alcohol, illicit drugs, firearms, car accidents, suicides, homicides, and AIDS combined according to a 1999 study mentioned in your textbook.


Depressant=a drug that _______ the rate of activity of the nervous system

Prescription narcotics:
Category I= drugs for _______ pain (Dilaudid, Demerol, Fentanyl, Methadone) Category II= drugs for ___________ pain (codeine, Percodan, Percocet, hydrocodone: Vicodin, Lortab) Category III= drugs for ______ to moderate pain (Darvon, Darvocet) Cannabis=


Solvents and inhalants=

Most used drug in United States among high school seniors
(See chart 5.4) pg 208

1. alcohol1. alcohol
2. marijuana 2. cigarettes
3. cigarettes 3. marijuana

“Triggers” = ____________ -- a sight, a sound, a smell, a feeling -- that reminds someone of past drug or alcohol experiences and inspires cravings.

Substance Abuse: American Psychiatric Association defines is as: a ____________consisting of persistent use of a substance even though it is causing or compounding problems in meeting the demands of life.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) defines abuse as: A maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by ___________ of the following, occurring _____________________. (see chart on next page) Most often, abuse is diagnosed in individuals who recently began using alcohol. Over time, abuse may progress to dependence. However, some alcohol users abuse alcohol for long periods without developing dependence.

Substance Dependence: is more severe, having both _________ and __________ components. DSM-IV defines dependence as: A maladaptive pattern of substance use, leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by ________ of the following, occurring at any time __________________: (see chart on next page) [DSM-IV, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ed. 4. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association (AMA). 1994.] Danger signs in substance use:

Craving – A strong ____ or_____ to use
Loss of control – Not being able to _____ use once it has begun Physical dependence – Withdrawal symptoms.
Tolerance – The need to ingest ______ amounts of drug to get achieve _____ effects •a need for markedly _______amounts of the substance to achieve intoxication or desired effect

•markedly ________ effect with continued use of the same amount of substance

Causes of Substance Abuse and Dependence:
Usually begins with experimental use as a teen.
The average age when youth first try alcohol is:
____ years for boys
____ years for girls. The average age at which Americans begin drinking regularly is _____ years old.

| | | |Dependence |Abuse...
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