Akb48 - Theoretical Base

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CHAPTER IV
THEORETICAL BASE

A. Marketing
1. Marketing definition
a. According to Philip Kotler and Kevin Lone Keller, marketing is a societal process by which individuals and group obtain what they need and want through creating, offering and freely exchanging products and services of value with others. (Philip Kotler and Kevin Lone Keller, Marketing Management, 12th e) b. According to American Marketing Association, marketing is a process of planning and implementing conception, determining price, promotion and distribution idea, goods, and services to create exchange that satisfy individual and organization goals. c. According to William J. Stanton, marketing is whole system from business activity that pointed to planning, determining price, promoting, and distributing product that satisfy actual buyers and potential buyers needs. 2. Simple marketing system

Market
A collection of buyers
Industry
A collection of sellers
Money
Goods and Services
Communication
Information

*Three functions of ads are: introduce (especially for new product), remain (Sunlight), and educate (Promag and Adem Sari). *Why the information is important? Because we can know about the needs of consumer, the strategy of our competitor, and the competition in market. 3. Marketing concept based on:

Needs is state of felt deprivation. These needs are divided to physical needs for food, clothes, and safety; social needs for love and be loved; and individual needs for knowledge and self-actualization. Wants is form that human need take as shaped by culture and individual personality. Human wants is unlimited but the available of resources is limited. So, they choose product that will give them the highest value and satisfaction. When human wants is backed by buying power, it become demands. B. International Marketing

4. International Marketing Definition
d. International marketing is simply the application of marketing principles to more than one country. The process of globalization also provides a country to have a hidden attack to another. International marketing is often not as simple as marketing your product to more than one nation. Companies must consider language barriers, ideals, and customs in the market they are approaching. Tailoring your marketing strategies to attract the specific group of people you are attempting to sell to be highly important and can serve the number one cause of failure or success. (Eagle Business (2007) e. International marketing refers to marketing carried out by companies overseas or across national borderlines. (Wikipedia) 5. Purpose of international marketing

f. Identify global customer needs.
g. Satisfy global customer.
h. Make a better competition.
i. Coordinate marketing activities.
j. Recognize international environment challenges.
6. The reason that motivate international marketing activities: k. Global needs. Needs is a main factor that motivate international marketing activities because company need costumer to buy their product and get profit. l. Technology. As the increasing of technology, company uses the latest technology to fulfill market needs. However it is overload for sometimes and it should be export to avoid lose. m. Fee. It is depend on each countries regulation.

n. Quality. Means that there is SOP (Standard Operating Procedure). o. Communication and Transportation. As the result of its development, distance is not obstacle to go international. p. Leverage. There are experience transfer, system transfer, saving scale, resources exploration, and global strategy. 7. International Obstacles.

q. Different market. The difference in demography.
r. History.
s. Conservative management.
t. Organization culture.
u. Government control.
8....
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