Agriculture plays the chief role of revenue earning in Assam economy. The state of Assam experiences plenty of rainfall and possess a fertile land which is extremely advantageous for cropping. This has led to the flourishing growth in food crops and staples in Assam agriculture. Rice is the main food crop in Assam agriculture as it is the main diet in the state too. Those who are engaged in the agricultural department of Assam fully concentrates on cultivating rice as it falls under their main priority. Other food crops cultivated in Assam agriculture include jute, sugarcane, fruits, tea, pulses, coconut, potatoes, cotton, and arecanuts. More than 50 percent of the total population of the state are involved in agricultural activities of Assam.
Few factors that contribute largely to the development and growth of the agricultural activities of Assam are listed below:
* Highly yielding strains
* Chemical fertilizers
* Crop protection
* Advancement of loan for various agricultural activities * Marketing facilities
* Flood control
* Implementing drought evading schemes
Flood is highly ruinous for crop production. During 1991-92, the state of Assam witnessed three floods in one year which has caused a heavy loss to the cultivation sector damaging a cropping area of around 3.5 lakh hectares. Therefore, flood control is very important and should be given foremost priority to save the crops in Assam. In spite of such a terrible loss in crops during 1991-92, the state received 31.85 tonnes of rice and it covered around 70 percent of the total cultivated land. The total agricultural land for rice is 35 lakh hectares in Assam.