Agriculture is in many parts of the world is the main source of food and income of households. The role that agriculture plays in development has been debated during the last decades and the views about it are very diverse. Today, many authors consider agriculture as an essential factor for development and an important instrument for poverty alleviation. In my opinion access to land and water is an indispensable condition to ensure the livelihood of the poor. The current market conditions and the economic liberalization process make it difficult for small farmers to compete with the international sphere, which led many people to move out of agriculture. Also, the market-driven economy has serious environmental consequences, which leads to the investment in the research of more sustainable agriculture methods.
In this essay, we provide a situational analysis of agriculture in the third world, which warrants our interest in the same. 1. Different views about Agriculture and Development.
For some authors agriculture is a provider of raw material for the rest of the economic sectors and it is seen as a mere contributor to fuel economic development. This simplistic vision contrast with that of those who see agriculture as an essential instrument for industrialization, allowing the transfer of capital to urban areas, stimulating the market and, thus, resulting in economic development. According to Norton (2004), most of economic theories of the last 50 years support industrialization as the basis of economic development. Many governments supporting this theory saw liberalization of agricultural goods as the key for economic growth, without taking into account the effect of dependency that the new system would create.
2. The effects of the market on rural agriculture. The case of Kenya, The global economy and liberalization has deep effects on agriculture, and especially on the economy of smallholder’s farmers in the Third World. New...