Agricultural Systems

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Agricultural Systems

1. Page 96-97 Farming Systems and Types and Classification of Types of Farming. You need to know the following key terminology:- • Systems = Inputs, processes, outputs
• Arable, pastoral and mixed farming
• Commercial and subsistence farming
• Extensive and intensive farming

2. Subsistence and intensive rice farming in the Lower Ganges Valley – page 112. The information from page 112 has been summarised in the table below:-

|TITLE | |Rice farming in India and Bangladesh, SE Asia | |TYPE OF FARMING |Intensive, subsistence, arable and monoculture | |INPUTS - PHYSICAL | |SOILS |Rich alluvial soils full of nutrients due to annual flooding of the River Ganges. Manure from | | |water buffalo adds to fertility | |RELIEF |Flat river flooding plain | |CLIMATE |High temperatures over 21 degrees Celsius throughout the year which ideal for growing rice. | | |This continuous growing season allows two crops to be grown annually on the same piece of | | |land. Annual Monsoon rains for water | |INPUTS - HUMAN | |CAPITAL |Very little capital available as this is subsistence farming | |(money) | | |LABOUR |Labour intensive – lots of family members, including children, will work on the land | |(workers) | | |FARM SIZE |1 hectare (the size of a football pitch) and may be divided into 12 or 15 plots | |TECHNOLOGY |Very little technology – only hand held machinery to use with water buffalo | |MARKET |Generally no market as largely subsistence farming so nothing left to sell. Any extra output| | |will be sold at a local market. | |TRANSPORT |Generally not important as all output is consumed by the family. If there is some extra | | |output and it goes to the local market it will travel by local transportation e.g. water | | |buffalo on poorly constructed and maintained mud roads. | |PROCESSES | |Rice initially grown in nurseries, transported as soon as the monsoon rain flood the padi-fields – rice needs to be submerged | |in water to grow. | |OUTPUT | |During the dry season, when there is often insufficient water for rice, either vegetations or a cereal crop is grown. |

3. Commercial and extensive...
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