Fill in the table below by classifying each philosophy as either teacher-centered or student-centered authority. Next, identify the main characteristics of that philosophy. (The first one is completed for you as an example.) Once you have completed the table, answer the questions below.
Educational Philosophies Table
Philosophy| Teacher- or Student-Centered Authority| Characteristics| | | |
Perennialism| Teacher-centered| Knowledge is enduring, seeks everlasting truths, views principles of existence as constant or unchanging, values the ability to reason, associated with idealism| Progressivism| Student-centered| Education that focuses on learning how to think rather than what to think. Learning through human experience as a bases for knowledge with trials and scientific method learning activities. With questions created by the learners.| Reconstructionism| Student-centered| Teaching students to critically explore the world’s cultural and issues. Goals that include renewal and promotion of an enhanced world. | Positivism| Teacher-centered| Theory that rejects notions that can not be observed and measured. Based on facts that can be explained by laws of matter and motion. | Constructivism| Student-centered| Emphasizes hands on, activity based teaching and learning. Students are encouraged to discover their own answers and to learn through their own personal styles. | Behaviorism| Teacher-centered| Humans are a product of their environments especially their interpersonal environment. Good and bad stimuli presents a large role in behavior. These environments shape a persons behavior. Positively reinforcing good behavior observed. | Humanism| Student-centered| Seeks to teach the individual development and not the class. Also to build on the innate goodness that all humans are born with.| Essentialism| Teacher-centered| Teaching of the fundamentals, developing sound habits, and respect...