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  • Topic: Nanotechnology, Nanomaterials, Nanoparticle
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  • Published : March 11, 2013
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NANOTECHNOLOGY

What is NANO TECHNOLOGY?
Nanotechnology is science, engineering, and technology conducted at the nanoscale, which is about 1 to 100 nanometers. Nanoscience and nanotechnology are the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering. Nanotechnology is not just a new field of science and engineering, but a new way of looking at and studying .

How it started?
The ideas and concepts behind nanoscience and nanotechnology started with a talk entitled “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom” by physicist Richard Feynman at an American Physical Society meeting at the California Institute of Technology (CalTech) on December 29, 1959, long before the term nanotechnology was used. In his talk, Feynman described a process in which scientists would be able to manipulate and control individual atoms and molecules. Over a decade later, in his explorations of ultra precision machining, Professor Norio Taniguchi coined the term nanotechnology. It wasn't until 1981, with the development of the scanning tunneling microscope that could "see" individual atoms that modern nanotechnology began.

Fundamental Concepts in NANO TECHNOLOGY:
It’s hard to imagine just how small nanotechnology is.One nanometer is a billionth of a meter, or 10-9 of a meter. Here are a few illustrative examples: * There are 25,400,000 nanometers in an inch

* A sheet of newspaper is about 100,000 nanometers thick
* On a comparative scale, if a marble were a nanometer, then one meter would be the size of the Earth Nanoscience and nanotechnology involve the ability to see and to control individual atoms and molecules. Everything on Earth is made up of atoms—the food we eat, the clothes we wear, the buildings and houses we live in, and our own bodies. But something as small as an atom is impossible to see with the naked eye. In fact, it’s impossible to see with the microscopes typically used in a high school science classes. The microscopes needed to see things at the nanoscale were invented relatively recently—about 30 years ago. Once scientists had the right tools, such as the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and the atomic force microscope (AFM), the age of nanotechnology was born. Although modern nanoscience and nanotechnology are quite new, nanoscale materials were used for centuries. Alternate-sized gold and silver particles created colors in the stained glass windows of medieval churches hundreds of years ago. The artists back then just didn’t know that the process they used to create these beautiful works of art actually led to changes in the composition of the materials they were working with. Today's scientists and engineers are finding a wide variety of ways to deliberately make materials at the nanoscale to take advantage of their enhanced properties such as higher strength, lighter weight, increased control of light spectrum, and greater chemical reactivity than their larger-scale counterparts.

Nanomaterials:
The nanomaterials field includes subfields which develop or study materials having unique properties arising from their nanoscale dimensions.[24] * Interface and colloid science has given rise to many materials which may be useful in nanotechnology, such as carbon nanotubes and other fullerenes, and various nanoparticles and nanorods. Nanomaterials with fast ion transport are related also to nanoionics and nanoelectronics. * Nanoscale materials can also be used for bulk applications; most present commercial applications of nanotechnology are of this flavor. * Progress has been made in using these materials for medical applications; seeNanomedicine. * Nanoscale materials are sometimes used in solar cells which combats the cost of traditional Silicon solar cells * Development of applications incorporating semiconductor nanoparticles to be used in the next...
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