Acct Project 2

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Executive summary:
Whale fishing, also known as whaling, is a traditional fishing activity which existing thousands of years in the world. Fisherman fishing whales, sell of whale meat and oil to make money. With the development of modern fishing technology, industrial fishing gradually replaces a large number of private fishing activities, which made whaling easier and more efficient. Greenpeace International’s data showed “Commercial whaling during the last century decimated most of the world's whale populations. Estimates suggest that between 1925, when the first whaling factory ship was introduced, and 1975, more than 1.5 million whales were killed in total” (“Waling”). World Wildlife Fund stated that there is less than one hundred thousand whales remain in the world, and listed 7 out of the 13 great whale species as endangered animal. Which can proved that industrial fishing is the main reason lead whales endangered. Many social organizations tried to let people to stop whaling activities, such as World Wildlife Fund (WWF), International Whaling Commission (IWC), Greenpeace, etc. Those organizations are all nonprofit organizations which stated the importance of whale protection. In recent years, whaling forbidding has achieved a great success. Most of world traditional whaling countries signed to end their “commercial whaling activities” except three countries, those are: Japan, Iceland and Norway.

Issue definition
Ecosystem:
Whales have existed millions of year on earth, their great size and diversity of food let them become the top of the food chain. As the top of food chain, whales act as an important role in the health of the marine environment. “All plants and animals depend on another plant or animal to some degree for their survival as a species which create a food chain. Food chain explained the relationship of eating or being eaten among different species. Each food chain begins with some sort of plant and ends with an animal. Food webs and food chains are made up of producers, consumers, herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, and decomposers” (Edna). Each group in food chain is indispensable. In the ecosystem, no species is independent, each species maintains an indelicate relationship among the food chain; their existing can ensure their related species keep in a balance number. Marine food web includes 5 major groups, which is phytoplankton, zooplankton, small bait fish, large fish and predators. Whales are included in predators group, the top of the ocean food pyramid, which means they do not have natural enemies. Whales have different food preferences through whale species, killer whale is fed on other great whales, but majority of whales are living through eating zooplankton, krill and small fishes. Natural laws indicate the decline of whale will led their prey which is zooplankton, krill and small fishes lost their natural enemy. Ocean will become overpopulated with those species and will result a disappearing ocean plants. Even the consequence can be controlled; the bio system will become fragile result from biodiversity loss. A study in 2010 claimed “whale pump” increase ocean health. Whale feces is rich in nutrients, has a huge positive influence on the productivity of ocean fisheries. “Whales, they found, carry nutrients such as nitrogen from the depths where they feed back to the surface via their feces. Which have the same function as microbes, plankton, and fish recycle nutrients in ocean waters. That research proved whales providing nutrients increase primary productivity, allowing more phytoplankton to grow, which then pushes up the secondary productivity” (Roman). Usually, a water zone have more phytoplankton will lead abundance fish resource which result from more nutrients move through food chain. The research indicate whale provide a better fishing environment for fisherman. However, insatiable fisherman still aimed spear gun to whales.

Illegal whaling:
The International Whaling...
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