111 Phonetic

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THE INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (revised to 2005)
CONSONANTS (PULMONIC)

© 2005 IPA

Bilabial Labiodental Dental

Alveolar Post alveolar Retroflex

pb
m
ı

Plosive
Nasal
Trill
Tap or Flap
Fricative
Lateral
fricative
Approximant
Lateral
approximant

td
µ
n
r
|
v
F B f v T D s  z S Z
ÒL

®
l

Palatal

Velar

Uvular

Pharyngeal

Glottal

Ê∂ cÔkgqG
/
=

N

R
«
ßΩ çJxVXÂ ©? hH



j
¥

˜
K

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.

>
˘
!
¯


Bilabial
Dental
(Post)alveolar
Palatoalveolar
Alveolar lateral


Î
˙
ƒ
Ï

Bilabial
Dental/alveolar
Palatal
Velar
Uvular

Front

Ejectives

Voiced implosives


p’
t’
k’
s’

Close

Examples:

i

y

Bilabial

Close-mid

Dental/alveolar
Velar

Open-mid

Alveolar fricative

OTHER SYMBOLS

DIACRITICS

9

3
Ó
7


2
 ·
+
`
8
±
 

Open

n9 d9
Voiced
s3 t 3
Aspirated
tÓ dÓ
More rounded O7
Less rounded

Advanced
u™
Retracted
e2
Centralized

Mid-centralized e+
Syllabic
n`
Non-syllabic
e8
Rhoticity
´± a±

ª

e∏
´
E{ ‰
å
œ
a”

£
W



ù
6
§
5


Øo
øO


SUPRASEGMENTALS

"

Æ

Ú

(

kp ts
N(

bª aª 1 Dental
t 1 d1
Creaky voiced
b0 a0 ¡ Apical
t ¡ d¡
Linguolabial
t £  d£ 4 Laminal
t 4 d4
Labialized
tW dW ) Nasalized
e)
Palatalized
t∆ d∆ ˆ Nasal release

Velarized
t◊  d◊ ¬ Lateral release d¬
Pharyngealized t≥   d≥
} No audible release d}
Velarized or pharyngealized :
Raised
e6  ( ®6 = voiced alveolar fricative)
Lowered
e§ ( B§ = voiced bilabial approximant)
Advanced Tongue Root
e5
Retracted Tongue Root
e∞
Breathy voiced

0

U

¨u

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one
to the right represents a rounded vowel.

Diacritics may be placed above a symbol with a descender, e.g.

Voiceless

Back

ÈË

IY
eP

(

∑ Voiceless labial-velar fricative Ç Û Alveolo-palatal fricatives w   Voiced labial-velar approximant
» Voiced alveolar lateral flap
Á Voiced labial-palatal approximant Í Simultaneous S and x Ì Voiceless epiglottal fricative
Affricates and double articulations
 ¿  Voiced epiglottal fricative
can be represented by two symbols
joined by a tie bar if necessary.
 ÷   Epiglottal plosive

Central

ò

Clicks

VOWELS

Primary stress
Secondary stress

ÆfoUn´"tIS´n

*

˘

.

e _
e!
e@
e~
e—
Õ
õ

e…

e*

Long
Half-long
Extra-short

Minor (foot) group
Major (intonation) group
Syllable break

®i.œkt

Linking (absence of a break)

TONES AND WORD ACCENTS
LEVEL
CONTOUR
Extra
Rising
or
 or
high

â
ê
î
ô
û

ˆ

CONSONANTS (NON-PULMONIC)

High
Mid
Low
Extra
low

Downstep
Upstep

e
e$
e%
efi
e&
ã
Ã

ä
ë
ü
ï
ñ$

Falling
tracking img