I. Multiple choice: 1% x 30 = 30%
1. The novels and short stories of Henry James and Edith Wharton tended to focus on (A) the tragic outcomes of impoverished characters living in industrialized urban wastelands. (B) the ordeals of isolated characters living as survivalists in the sparsely populated hinterlands of the United States. (C) the inner psychological lives of privileged upper-class characters. (D) the exploits of characters with startling accomplishments and impressive abilities. 2. What qualities distinguish practitioners of “naturalism” from practitioners of “realism” as a general movement? (A) their use of unspoiled natural settings for their fiction, rather than urban or agricultural spaces shaped by human activity (B) their focus on the way their characters’ lives are determined by forces beyond their own control (C) their focus on children and the possibilities of childhood (D) their focus on their characters’ abilities to forge their own destinies through the choices they make and the positions they knowingly adopt 3. Many noted authors of the late nineteenth century began their careers as (A) university professors.
(B) religious clergy.
(C) visual artists.
(D) newspaper journalists.
4. Which of the following best describes the conditions most urban factory workers faced at the end of the nineteenth century? (A) low wages, dangerous working conditions, and few laws regulating safety or working hours (B) dangerous working conditions but relatively high wages and job security (C) low wages but effective union organization that ensured worker safety and reasonable working hours (D) There were few urban factor workers at the end of the nineteenth century; most laborers worked in agriculture during that period. 5. Which of the following best describes the effects of the end of Reconstruction in the southern states in 1877? (A) African Americans enjoyed unprecedented economic opportunities and protection of their civil rights. (B) The southern states protected African Americans’ right to vote and to wield political power but continued to practice de facto segregation. (C) The southern states instituted segregationist Jim Crow laws and worked to erode the Constitutional amendments that guaranteed the civil rights of African Americans. (D) The vast majority of African Americans had fled the South for northern urban centers before 1877. 6. Which of the following best describes the goals of “regionalism” as a literary movement? (A) to represent and thus preserve the distinctive natural, social, and linguistic features of particular regions of the United States (B) to create texts that catered exclusively to citizens of particular regions of the United States, texts that were not intended to be read by the general American population (C) to contest the idea that the United States consisted of different “regions” at all, and instead to codify and celebrate the national melting pot (D) to represent and explore through fictional characters the process through which each western state achieved statehood 7. Which of the following best describes historian Frederick Jackson Turner’s ideas about the American Western frontier in 1893? (A) The Western frontier had been crucial to the formation of America’s democratic character, but no longer existed by the end of the nineteenth century. (B) The Western frontier had led to the degeneration of American character by encouraging lawlessness and land grabbing, but fortunately no longer existed by the end of the nineteenth century. (C) The Western frontier was vast and rich enough to provide Americans with opportunities to test their industriousness and exercise their democratic tendencies for centuries to come. (D) The so-called “Western frontier” had never really been a frontier because it had already been occupied by Native Americans. 8. Realism as a literary movement took many different forms, but these forms generally had some basic...
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