What factors seem most important in the transition from traditional to modern society? Why do they seem so crucial? 2.
AND...In what ways was socialism a response to that transition? In what ways did it look toward a new transition?
Individual identity, racism, political morality economics, ecology, nationalism and globalization are the most important transition factors moving through 1500 to 1800. When it comes to traditional society to modern society, individuality is a characteristic of modern society. An individual in the middle ages was someone who was a representative of his or her group. The individual was the person who was the best example of the family or general group that was being described. (Reilly 2002) In the middle ages you were not able to get out of your social class that you were born from, your occupation eventually indicated your class. One of the most important causes was the rise of the middle class population of merchants and traders who found estate society too confining for their individual talents and ambitions. (Reilly 2002)People in the middle Ages belonged to only three social classes and only worked in ten or twenty occupations. The modern industrial society began a revolution that continues to make people’s lifestyles and occupations more specialized. (Reilly 2002) In the traditional society there were no specialized rooms before the last couple of hundred years. Privacy was clearly impossibly in this kind of society. Without special rooms and private rooms, no one could ever be alone for very long. Since there was no privacy, there could be very little private identity. All of life was public in traditional society partly because there was very little private space. (Reilly 2002) Before the 1700s almost everyone lacked the room and rooms to develop private lives and private identities. Inventions of the bedroom, bathroom and the office were significant events that transitioned into Modern society. (Reilly 2002) The peoples intellectual knowledge was also not personalized in the traditional society, with the lack of a printing press to copy and manufacture books, often copies of literature was read in a public forum at the pace and tone of the individual who could read. Before the printing press was invented, all written knowledge was handwritten. Trying to make a copy of a literature, philosophy or science book was such a strenuous task that only a few copies were available. (Reilly 2002) In the tradition society people read very little and most of the reading was read aloud to others. The invention of printing eventually put books into the hands of almost everyone, and it vastly increased the number of titles that could be copied. With this invention, people eventual transitioned to reading to themselves, by doing this, you are able to acquire a personal interpretation of the material. (Reilly 2002) A little after the 1500’s the artwork began to also have more of an individualist form to it. Artists were considered craftsmen, they working in groups of masters and apprentices. It became common practice after 1400 for a single artist to sign a painting, but the patron who commissioned the painting usually paid for the paints and chose the subject. (Reilly 2002) Artists like Leonardo and Michelangelo contributed to modern ideas of individuality not only with their interests and talents but also in the new social position they gained for being an artist. The personality of the artist replaced the work of art. Drawings and incomplete works were saved and studied for what they revealed of the artist, the artist’s style, and the artistic process. (Reilly 2002) The personality of the artist was studied for fatal flaws that were supposed to accompany genius. During this transition from traditional to Modern society sea voyages were the most common form of travel. European colonialists a hundred years ago had a difficult time figuring out if the dark skinned Africans were the same race...
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