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Shier, Butler, and Lewis: Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11th ed. Chapter 1: Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology

Chapter 1: Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology

I. Introduction

A. The interests of our earliest ancestors most likely concerned

B. Primitive people certainly suffered from
C. Before agriculture, infectious diseases did not spread easily because

D. With agriculture, humans became susceptible to worm diseases because

E. With urbanization, humans became more susceptible to and
F. Tooth decay was lowest among
and highest among
G. Preserved bones from children can reflect malnutrition because

H. At first healers had to rely on

I. The forerunners of modern drugs were
J. Early medical providers developed the language of anatomy and physiology from

II. Anatomy and Physiology

A. Anatomy is
B. Physiology is
C. Anatomists rely on
D. Physiologists rely on
E. Anatomy and Physiology are difficult to separate because

F. The anatomy of the hand, which is
, allows it to grasp objects.
G. The structure of the heart includes
which allows it to propel blood into blood vessels. H. The heart valves ensure
I. The shape of the mouth allows it
J. Teeth can function to break solid foods because K. A recent anatomical discovery is
L. A recent physiological discovery is
M. Researchers have recently sequenced
which will help explain anatomy and physiology at the andlevels.

III. Levels of Organization

A. All materials are made of
B. Chemicals consist of tiny particles called
C. Examples of atoms are
D. When atoms chemically bond together they form
E. Examples of molecules are
F. When small molecules chemically combine they form
G. Examples of macromolecules are
H. Within humans, the basic unit of structure is
I. Cells are made of small structures called
J. Organelles are made of
K. Examples of organelles are
L. Examples of cells are
M. Tissues are formed from
N. Examples of tissues are
O. Organs are formed from
P. Examples of organs are
Q. Organ systems are formed from
R. Examples of organ systems include
S. Organisms are formed from
T. The organism studied in this class is the

IV. Characteristics of Life

A. Movement is
B. Responsiveness is
C. Growth is
D. Reproduction is
E. Respiration is
F. Digestion is
G. Absorption is
H. Circulation is
I. Assimilation is
J. Excretion is
K. Metabolism is

V. Maintenance of Life

A. Requirements of Organisms
1. The five requirements of life are ____________________,, ___________________, _____________________, and
2. The most abundant substance in the body is
3. Four major uses of water by the body are

4. Substances that provide organisms with nutrients are called 5. Nutrients supply
6. One-fifth of air is
7. The body uses oxygen
8. A form of energy used by the body is
9. Heat helps to regulate
10. The application of force on an object is
11. Atmospheric pressure is
12. For humans, atmospheric pressure plays an important role in 13. Hydrostatic pressure is
14. A type of hydrostatic pressure in the human is B. Homeostasis
1. The internal environment of the body consists of

2. Homeostasis is
3....
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