World History I Exam I Review

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WORLD HISTORY I EXAM REVIEW

CHAPTER 1: THE EARLIEST HUMAN SOCIETIES

PALEOLITHIC ERA: ~8000 BC Old Stone Age; earliest people
Hunting and gathering food, vitamins, and minerals
Buffalo, deer, herd animals that could be tracked
Stayed next to rivers so they could follow the animas as they migrated (nomadic) Small societies
Around 50-150
Support of environment
Large enough for biological diversity
Communication by sound (ghost communication)
Slow development of technology
Houses: caves, teepees, tents; transportable
Developments
Primitive, raw materials
Domestic animals were a measure of wealth
Fire gave warmth, food, doubled work days, chemical changes
NEOLITHIC ERA: ~8000-7000 BC New Stone Age; shorter era; used stone and heat/fire AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION
Most important human development
Most successful society(river valley
Grain(feed animals, beer (1st) which lasts a long time, bread (2nd), plant more Huge changes
Staying in one place
Storage of crops
Development of leaders to govern order because of age, experience, family, skills Basic government
Private property gave new wealth
Fight for property to protect from invaders and was given crops RELIGION(ANIMISM
Increased role of women (gatherers and taking care of children/home) Childbirth is the #1 killer of women until 1900s
Breastmilk until about 5 ½ years (weening age)
Roles change; men do stuff close to home and women work at home (manufacture clothes) Goddesses and Priestesses involved in Mimic Ritual
Beginning of supernatural beliefs
Copying a spiritual, meaningful reference
LANGUAGE: majority/most useful language that people learn to give them the most benefits of a spoken (trade requires more communication) Pictography: picture words
Conventional Sign: start as pictograph and make it a symbol by convention Phonetic Language: sign=sound; literacy goes up

CHAPTER 2: THE RISE OF THE STATE

Semitic Peoples: language group; carry culture; people in between/not in one place

4000-3500 BC Sumerians migrate from Caspian Sea coast; have Agri Rev at base of Tigris & Euphrates Cuneiform: conventional sign
60 degree math and 360 degree circle
Lunar calendar—chart time
Wheel
Polytheists—not exclusive

Hebrew People: Semitic speak Hebrew; Judaism & Christianity; wrote everything in religious texts

~2500 BCE BRONZE AGE: copper/tin; weaker than stone(shape it Ctal Hyuck: small; not good soil; volcanic stone/glass; 1st trade-based city; 1st raw-materialed monopoly; very military b/c of it; going into Bronze Age nobody needed obsidian so wasteland; depends on worth 2250 BC Sargon forms empire on Akkad(Akkadian Empire; didn’t know what happened outside city-states; built roads and stationed soldiers to control it; Sargon isn’t Sumerian but Semitic Culturally, from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean, Sumerian influence spreads

1850s BC Hammurabi: king of Babylon; not Sumerian and bigger than Sargon’s empire; cuneiform becomes the language of trade; 1st written law code; Sumerian in culture HAMMURABI’S EMPIRE
More connectivity (through his lawcode); intermarriage
More military control
Wheel, lunar calendar, gods and goddesses
He’s an outsider, not Sumerian/Babylonian but Semitic
LAWCODE
Crimes committed against individuals
Justices for the family
How it pertains to certain people (man, woman, heir, leader, peasant, slave, etc.) ~500 years after Hammurabi, Babylonian Empire fades
The Hittites came from an Indo-European group in Western Asia Related according to culture, language
Iron—purified, strong protection
Military
Domesticated horses
Developed chariots using iron
~1500 BCE set up an empire across Mesopotamia, intersecting trade cuneiform/Sumerian language
~1200 BCE starts to fade because other people learn their technology with iron

EGYPT
Geography
Sahara: ~5000BCE most was livable then they migrated to the Nile across Northern Africa Isolated: not hospitable, rough, mountainous desert
The Ancient Egypt...
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