Ways of the World Chapter Ten

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Trevor Stime
10/22/12
AP World
Mrs. DeFreitas
Chapter Ten Outline

I. Opening Vignette
A. In 1964, the Eastern Orthodox patriarch Athenagoras and Pope Paul VI met and rescinded the mutual excommunication decrees imposed by their respective churches in 1054. 1. Christianity had provided common ground for postclassical societies in western Eurasia 2. but Christendom was deeply divided: Byzantine Empire and West a. Byzantium continued Roman imperial traditions

b. West tried to maintain links to classical world
c. but Roman imperial order disintegrated in the West
3. Roman Catholic Church of the West established independence from political authorities; Eastern Orthodox Church did not 4. western church was much more rural than Byzantium
5. Western Europe emerged, at an increasing pace after 1000, as a dynamic third-wave civilization 6. Western Europe was a hybrid civilization: classical, Germanic, Celtic 7. in 500 c.e., only about one-third of all Christians lived in Europe a. many distinctive forms of Christianity in other regions b. many branches have survived throughout Afro-Eurasia; other branches were eliminated by spread of alternative religions

II. Eastern Christendom: Building on the Past
A. The Byzantine Empire has no clear starting point.
1. its own leaders saw it as a continuation of the Roman Empire 2. some scholars date its beginning to 330 c.e., with foundation of Constantinople 3. Roman Empire formally divided into eastern and western halves in late fourth century C.E. 4. western empire collapsed in fifth century; eastern half survived another 1,000 years 5. eastern empire contained ancient civilizations: Egypt , Greece , Syria , and Anatolia 6. Byzantine advantages over western empire

a. wealthier and more urbanized
b. more defensible capital ( Constantinople )
c. shorter frontier
d. access to the Black Sea; command of eastern Mediterranean e. stronger army, navy, and merchant marine
f. continuation of late Roman infrastructure
g. conscious effort to preserve Roman ways
B. The Byzantine State
1. the Byzantine Empire was much smaller than the Roman Empire 2. but it remained a major force in eastern Mediterranean until around 1200 3. political authority was tightly centralized in Constantinople a. emperor ruled as God’s representative on earth

b. awesome grandeur of court (based on ancient Persian style) c. was mostly concerned with tax collection and keeping order 4. territory shrank after 1085, as western Europeans and Turks attacked 5. 1453: Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople , ended empire C. The Byzantine Church and Christian Divergence

1. the Church was closely tied to the state: caesaropapism a. Byzantine emperor was head of both the state and the Church b. emperor appointed the patriarch, sometimes made doctrinal decisions, called church councils 2. Orthodox Christianity deeply influenced all of Byzantine life a. legitimated imperial rule

b. provided cultural identity
c. pervasiveness of churches, icons
d. even common people engaged in theological disputes
3. Eastern Orthodoxy increasingly defined itself in opposition to Latin Christianity a. Latin Christianity was centered on the pope, Rome
b. growing rift between the two parts of Christendom
c. sense of religious difference reflected East/West political difference d. with rise of Islam, Constantinople and Rome remained as sole hubs of Christendom e. important East/West cultural differences (language, philosophy, theology, church practice) f. schism in 1054, with mutual excommunication

g. Crusades (from 1095 on) worsened the situation
h. during Fourth Crusade, Westerners sacked Constantinople (1204) and ruled Byzantium for next 50 years D. Byzantium and the World
1. Byzantium had a foot in both Europe...
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