a. Set of sounds, combination of sounds, and symbols that are used for communication. b. A written or verbal way of communicating to others.
c. English, Spanish, Italian
2. Standard Language
a. The variant of a language that a country's political and intelligence elite seek to promote as the norm for use in schools, government, the media, and other aspects of public life. b. The normal language commonly heard around the area, varies between regions. c. Brazil speaks mainly Brazilian.
a. Local or regional characteristics of a language. While accent refers to the pronunciation differences of a standard language, a dialect, in addition to pronunciation variation, has distinctive grammar and vocabulary. b. The differences in a language depending on where you are. c. English from England compared to English from America.
4. Mutual Intelligibility
a. The ability of two people to understand each other when speaking. b. When people can understand multiple languages
c. In China most people are required to speak and understand English and Chinese. 5. Language Families
a. A group of languages with a shared but fairly distant origin. b. When languages are derived from same ancestor
c. Spanish, Italian both came from Latin
a. Divisions within a language family where the commonalities are more definite and the origin is more recent. b. Where languages start new languages and branch off
c. Philippines language was mainly derived from Spanish
7. Sound Shift
a. Slight change in a word across languages within a subfamily or through a language family from the present backward towards its origin. b. The pronunciation of a word varies between languages
c. Center in America is centre in England
8. Backward reconstruction
a. The tracking of sound shifts and hardening of consonants backward toward the original language. b. Working backward to find the origin of a language
c. Using Spanish, Italian, and French...