1. The Maritime Revolution:
* Starts because of Ferdinand Magellan
* Expedition to reach East Indies
* Maritime era marked end of a long period.
* Broadened and deepened contacts, alliances, & conflicts across ancient cultural boundaries.
2. Global Maritime Expansion Before 1450:
* Strong ships were needed
* New sailing techniques
* Rewards for sea travel made them worthwhile
3. The Pacific Ocean:
* Polynesians originated in Asia
* They developed sea worthy canoes, Improved navigational skills, * They colonized Marquesas, settled in the Hawaiian Islands, Easter Island, New Zealand, and mainland Americas. * Gained access to sweet potatoes
* Planned settling in the eastern pacific
* Large double-hulled canoes allowed the transport of passengers, plants, and animals * Their success depended on the navigation skills
* Population growth was hierarchical and violent
4. The Indian Ocean:
* Malayo Indonesians sailed westward and colonized Madagascar * Indian Ocean was used for trade
* Rise of medieval Islam gave Indian Ocean trade a boost
* It provided demand for commodities and active Muslim traders. * Indian Ocean traders operated outside the control of the empires and states they served * China grew interest in wealthy trading ports
* The scale of Ming expeditions to the Indian Ocean Basin reflected imperial China's resources and importance. * Zheng He commanded the expeditions and kept records of his travels. * Chinese "treasure ships" carried rich silks, precious metals, and other valuable goods.
5. The Atlantic Ocean:
* Vikings were the greatest mariners of the Atlantic in the early middle ages. * They discovered and settled one island after another * Like Polynesians they used their knowledge of the heavens and the seas. * Vikings first settled Iceland, then Greenland.
* During the African voyages, Mansa Muhammad sent out 400 vessels and one canoe returned. Then he sent out a larger group and no one returned. * Amerindians followed lesser Antilles to Greater Antilles * All pursued long distance explorations and settlements
6. European Expansion, 1400 – 1550:
* Portuguese and Spanish expeditions ended isolation of Americas and increase the volume of global interaction.
7. Motives for Exploration:
* Voyages were built upon the revival of urban life & trade; unique alliances between merchants and traders; a struggle with Islamic powers for dominance of the Mediterranean that mixed religious motives with the desire for trade; and growing intellectual curiosity about the outside world. * Italians played leading roles in Atlantic explorations * Spain became Europe's most powerful state.
* They participated in shipbuilding and were open to new geographical knowledge
8. Portuguese Voyages:
* Portuguese conquered Ceuta.
* The capture of Ceuta gave them better intelligence of the caravans * They sought direct contact with gold producers.
* Henry the navigator promoted the study of navigation
* He wished to discover new places
* The expeditions he had weren't far from home
* He improved navigational instruments like the compass and the astrolabe * Portuguese mariners also developed vessels appropriate for voyages of long-distance exploration. * South Atlantic waters were thought to be boiling hot and contained ocean currents that prevented ships from returning home. * Portuguese explorers later learned how to return to home speedily by using prevailing winds. * Gold trade became important
* Bartolomeu Dias was the first Portuguese explorer to round the tip of Africa and enter the Indian Ocean. * Vasco de Gama led the first naval expedition from Europe to India.
9. Spanish Voyages:
* The Spanish kingdoms were preoccupied with internal affairs....