The American Pagent Chapter 8 Outline

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Chapter 8 Outline
1. Hessians:
* German soldiers
* Paid to fight for British
* Revolutionary War
* 1776
* Cause Colonists to win third battle after Christmas
2. Marquis de Lafayette:
* French major general who aided the colonies during the Revolutionary War. * Major foreign military expert who helped train the colonial armies. * Revolutionary War
* 1770’s
3. Continentals:
* Apart of the Continental Army
* Colonists
* 1781
4. Valley Forge:
* 1777 – 1778
* Pennsylvania
* Starving Soldiers in Winter
* Short Supplies
* Desperately needed clothing
* “Ragged, Lousy, Naked Regiment”
* Not a battle
* Site where the Continental Army camped during the winter of 1777- '78, after its defeats at the Battles of the Brandywine and Germantown. * The Continental Army suffered further casualties at Valley Forge due to cold and disease. * Washington chose the site because it allowed him to defend the Continental Congress 5. Baron von Steuben:

* Organizational genius who turned raw colonial recruits into tough military soldiers. * Continental Army
* German Military Leader

6. 2nd Continental Congress:
* Met in Philadelphia three weeks after the battles of Lexington and Concord. * Delegates from all colonies, except Georgia, who had not yet sent a representative, met and agreed to support the war, although they did not agree with the purpose of it. * There were two sides

* Extreme group led by John and Samuel Adams, Richard Henry Lee, * The other people had already favored independence and wanted to gain it from the war. * At the other end of the extreme was a group led by such moderates like John Dickinson who hoped for a quick reconciliation with Great Britain. * 1775

7. George Washinton:
* He had led troops unsuccessfully during the French and Indian War, * Had surrendered Fort Necessity to the French.
* He was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and was much more successful in this second command. * Named First President of the United States of America
* 1770’s – 1780’s
8. Bunker Hill:
* At the beginning of the Revolutionary War, the British troops were based in Boston. * The British army had begun to fortify the Dorchester Heights near Boston, * The Continental Army fortified Breed's Hill, north of Boston, to counter the British plan. * British general Gage led two unsuccessful attempts to take this hill, before he finally seized it with the third assault. * The British suffered heavy losses and lost any hope for a quick victory against the colonies. * Although the battle centered around Breed's Hill, it was mistakenly named for nearby Bunker Hill * 1775

9. Olive Branch Petetion:
* On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain * Agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances * Ended the taxation without representation policies

* It was rejected by Parliament
* In December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies. 10. Common Sense:
* Thomas Paine
* Published in 1776
* Which argued that the colonists should free themselves from British rule and establish an independent government based on Enlightenment ideals * One that would protect man & natural rights.

* Common Sense became so popular that many historians credit it with dissolving the final barriers to the fight for independence 11. Republic:
* Created after Common Sense
* 1770 – 1780’s ish
* Power flowed from the people themselves
* No form of corrupt and despotic monarchs
* Introduced Republicanism
12. Declaration Of Independence:
* Approved by Congress on July 4, 1776.
* Drafted by Thomas Jefferson
* It formalized the colonies' separation from...
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