The 18th & 19th Centuries

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CH 20 – The 18th & 19th Centuries:
Six main movements: Rococo, Neoclassicism, Romanticism, (The Academy), Realism, Impressionism (Macchiaioli) & Postimpressionism

Rococo is a unique style occurring toward the end of the Baroque period. It is a much more ornate style that shows sweetness, gaiety, and light; painterly and pastel features. It is chiefly characterized by the representation of the leisurely activities of upper class society by a frivolous choice of themes. Rococo is derived from the French term rocaille, which refers to small stones and shells that decorate the interior spaces of grottos & cause a crusty and heavily decorative appearance. The Baroque style was in some ways eroticized and embellished to become Rococo. The death of King Louis XIV ushered in a new thought process in the world of art, through society women with power, such as Madame de Pompadour, the mistress of King Louis XV. These women held salons, or social events, in many cases exhibitions of various artists’ work.

ARTISTS
François Boucher was a favorite painter of Mme. de Pompadour. Jean-Honoré Fragonard was a famous artist of the movement. Marie-Louise-Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun was a prolific portrait painter of the time (Queen Marie Antoinette, etc.)

Neoclassicism was opposed to the Rococo style of art. neo = new, classicism = reference to Classical period of Ancient Greece & Rome. The period was also fueled by the archaeological discoveries of Greece & Rome of the time. Characteristics of Neoclassical Art:

Strong sculptural lines/renderings of architecture
Subdued palette (less intense color, not “bright”)
Planar recession (recession in space by the use of planes: fore-, middle- & background) vs. Linear recession (what was used during the Renaissance: one-point perspective) •Was inspired by the French Revolution and intended to heighten moral standards •Art characterized by a restraint of emotion, purity of form, and subjects that inspired morality.

ARTISTS
Jacques-Louis David: The official painter of the French Revolution. Angelica Kaufmann: Responsible for spreading the Neoclassical style to England. Known for portraiture, history painting and narrative works. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingrès: Mannerist influence on Neoclassicism.

Romanticism also reflected the revolutionary spirit of the times. Characteristics of 19th century Romanticism:
Extremes of emotion
Virtuoso brushwork
A brighter color palette
Themes: nature as unpredictable and uncontrollable & allegory: a symbolical narrative or treatment of one subject under the appearance of another.

ARTISTS
Francisco Goya y Lucientes was born in Spain. He is best known for his works of political satire and condemnations of war. Goya heightens emotion by the use of acerbic tones and strong chiaroscuro.

Théodore Géricault was a liberal against the monarchy. He used a strong palette. He carefully planned then constructed his canvasses through the use of emotional, figurative and allegorical elements.

When did “Modern Art” begin?
1) 1776/1789 American and French Revolutions? New ideas about the way people ought to be governed – “Modern” ways of thinking. 2) 1814 Goya’s painting the Third of May, 1808? Political satire, condemnation of war – use of acid, nonrealistic colors to depict unnatural human acts, Painterly/looser brushwork. 3) 1863 Landmark exhibition in Paris? Salon des Réfusés.

(The Academy): Although very popular during this time Academic Painting had the least influence on the development of modern art. The Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture (1648) in Paris set up rules of style and subject matter that were considered appropriate. L’Academie had very stern and strict rules for what was “acceptable” in the creation of art. Academic Art is characterized by artistic conventions set by the members of the French Academy ARTISTS

Adolphe William Bouguereau
Gerome

Realism: Modern Realist...
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