Chapter 1: Introduction
Tourism nowadays represents the largest form of temporary migration in the world, tourism can be seen as the world's largest industry. The World Tourism Organization (WTO) has recognised that heritage and culture have become a component in almost 40% of all international trips undetaken. * Heritage tourism is defined as; 'an immersion in the natural history, human heritage, arts, philosophy and institutions of another region or country'.
The meaning of heritage and heritage tourism
Most researcher accept that heritage is linked to the past, that it represents some sort of inheritance to be passed down to current and future generations, both in terms of cultural traditions and physical artefacts. It is what elements of the past a society wishes to keep. It can be said that heritage is selective, not all heritages are highly valued, what is desirable to keep are only selections of the past. Heritage can be found in different contexts, things that are of personal value are labelled as personal or family heritage, whereas those values dictated by nations or communities become 'our' heritage.
Heritage can be classified as tangible immovable resources (buildings, rivers, natural areas), tangible movable resources (objects in museums, documents in archives), or intangibles such as values, customs, ceremonies, lifestyles and including experiences such as festivals, arts and cultural events. Heritage may be classified according to the type of attraction, some examples; * Natural heritage (protected areas like national parks)
* Living cultural heritage (fashions, foods, customs)
* Built heritage (historic cities, cathedrals, monuments, castles) * Industrial heritage (elements of a region's past that where influential in its growth and development, e.g. coal, lumber activity, textiles) * Personal heritage (aspects of regions that have value and significance to individuals or groups of people, e.g. cemeteries, religious sites) * Dark heritage ( places of atrocity, symbols of death and pain, elements of the past some would prefer to forget)
Associations are often made between history, heritage and culture. * History is the recording of the past as accurately as possible in so far as it can be accurate given present-day limitations of knowledge. * Heritage is part of our past too, but it includes a range of aspects such as language, culture, identity and locality, to name those that have assumed some degree of importance. Other author;
* History as a scholarly activity is a means of producing knowledge about the past, and heritage is a means of consumption of that knowledge. * Heritage is not simply the past, but modern-day use of elements of the past. * Culture is the range form historical monuments to handicrafts or artefacts, from festivals to music and dance presentations, and from the bustling street life of a different culture to the distinct lifestyle of indigenous people.
By linking history, culture and the land where people live, a range of heritage sites emerges that includes a mix of tangible and intangible elements; * Historic buildings and monuments
* Sites of important past events like battles
* Traditional landscape and indigenous wildlife
* Language, literature, music and art
* Traditional events and folklore practices
Poria et al (2001) identified three types of heritage tourists; 1) Those visiting a site they deem to be part of their heritage. 2) Those visiting what they consider as a heritage site though it is unconnected with their own. 3) Those visiting a heritage site specifically classified as a heritage place although unaware of this designation. On this basis they offer the following definition of heritage tourism; 'A subgroup of tourism, in which the main motivation for visiting a site is based on the place's heritage characteristics according to the tourists' perception of their own...
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