Lecture #9 (9/27/12): Phytoplankton, Picoplankton, Zooplankton intro 1. List 2 challenges of living in the pelagic environment. 2. Why are phytoplankton important?
3. Compare the general body plan of diatoms & dinoflagellates. What are their shells are composed of? 4. Compare the oceanic conditions that diatoms and dinoflagellates each thrive in. 5. Describe how diatoms reproduce and why this allows them to bloom so quickly. 6. Which plankton are responsible for red tides/harmful algal blooms? 7. Define: net plankton, picoplankton, nanoplankton, megaplankton 8. What are Cyanobacteria? Why are they so important? 9. List 2 types of photosynthetic picoplankton, note what their shells are made of & where they live. 10. Marine viruses can indeed be disease-inducing, but what two positive roles do marine viruses play? 11. What role do zooplankton play in marine food webs? 12. Define Holoplankton & meroplankton.
13. Why are do so many marine organisms have a planktonic larval stage (so are therefore meroplankton)? 14. List the two types of protozoan phytoplankton and two types of protozoan zooplankton. What are each of their shells made of?
Lecture 10 (10/2/12): Zooplankton; Epipelagic Adaptations I 1. List the 10 different types of zooplankton we discussed & 1 characteristic of each. State whether each is a holoplankton or meroplankton. 2. List 2 benefits for plankton to have a high surface-to-volume ratio (high surface area relative to body volume). 3. Why are most phytoplankton single-celled or very small (microscopic)? 4. Provide 2 examples of shapes of plankton that allow them to resist sinking. 5. List 3 different methods of buoyancy found in epipelagic organisms (remember that floatation differs from structures that resist sinking), providing an example of an organism using that method for each.
Lecture 11 (10/4/12) : Epipelagic Adaptations II ; Continental Shelf - soft sediment communities I. Epipelagic Adaptations II
1. List 1 adaptation found in epipelagic organisms providing each of the following senses: a. vision
2. What is the deep scattering layer (DSL) composed of? How is it detected? 3. When/where do organisms in the DSL migrate and why do they do it? 4. Describe 3 adaptations found in epipelagic fish that allow them to swim fast.
II. Continental Shelf soft sediment communities
5. The continental shelf waters are relatively shallow. In what 2 ways does this impact organisms living in the benthic zone? 6. What physical factors determine the types of organisms that can live in a particular soft-sediment area? 7. What types of organisms do most of the primary production in soft-sediment habitats? 8. Where in the continental shelf zone (benthic or pelagic) does most of the primary production occur? Why? 9. Define: benthic, chemosynthetic bacteria, epifauna, infauna, meiofauna, interstitial, demersal 10. Why are deposit feeders more abundant than filter feeders in soft-sediment areas? 11. Why are infauna more abundant than epifauna in soft-bottom substrates?
Lecture 12 (10/9/12): Soft-sediment communities, Seagrass beds,...