Study Guide: Intro to Zoology

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Zoology Study Guide Test 1: Chapters 1-5
Chapter 1: Intro and Animal Evolution
Know the various fields of Zoology-
Herpetology- the study of reptiles and amphibians
Ornithology- the study of birds
Entomology- the study of insects,
Ichthyology- the study of fish
Mammalogy- the study of mammals
Scientific Method as applied to Zoology
oScientific Method
Observation
Question
Hypothesis
Empirical Test
Conclusions
Publication/Peer Reviewed
Be able to expound upon the five theories of evolution as proposed by Darwin oPerpetual Change
All other theories are based on this theory.
States that the living world is neither constant nor perpetually cycling, but is always changing. Characteristics of organisms undergo changes across generations Gained acceptance when Darwin advocated it in his other four theories Perpetual change is clearly documented by the fossil record, which clearly refutes any claim that modern organisms originated in the recent past Perpetual change is regarded as fact

oCommon Descent
States that all forms of life originated from a common ancestor, whose lineages branched off. Opposition to this theory, which states that differing life forms arose independently and descended to the present in linear, unbranched genealogies, is refuted by comparative studies of organismal form, cellular structure, and macromolecular structure (such as DNA) Confirms that life’s history has the structure of a branching evolutionary tree (phylogeny). Species who share a recent common ancestor, such as in the last 7 million years, share more features with each other than those who branched off hundreds of millions of years earlier This theory guides ongoing research to reconstruct life’s phylogeny using patterns of similarity and dissimilarity Resulting phylogeny provides the basis for our taxonomic classification of animals oMultiplication of Species

States that evolution produces new species by splitting and transforming older ones When populations of a species are separated from each other by geographic barriers, the isolated parties undergo separate evolutionary change and can diverge from each other I.e.- Salamanders of same species in California. Spread across the state. Populations in different areas exhibit differing phenotypic traits, and some scientists believe we are witnessing speciation. Once species are fully formed, they propagate as separate evolutionary lineages, and interbreeding does not occur freely Evolutionists generally agree that splitting and transformation of lineages produce new species Much controversy remains concerning the details of this process and the precise meaning of the term “species”. Biologists are actively studying evolutionary processes that generate new species. oGradualism

States that the large differences in anatomical traits that characterize different species originate by accumulation of many small incremental changes over very long periods of time. Opposes the notion that large anatomical changes happen through rapid genetic changes in phenotype. Theory is supported by the fact that large genetic changes on organismal form are usually harmful to an organism It is possible that some large-scale genetic changes could be beneficial and be favored by natural selection Does not explain the origin of all structural differences observed among species Still being studied by scientists actively

oNatural Selection
Explains why organisms are structured to meet the demands of their environment Adaptation: the process by which populations accumulate favorable characteristics throughout long periods of evolutionary time Adaptation was formerly considered strong evidence against evolution. Darwin’s theory was important for convincing people that a natural process, able to be scientifically studied, could produce new adaptations and new species. Successful demonstration that natural...
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