Prehistory- first civilized people started migrating out of Africa, into the Near East, Europe and Asia. The migration set the period known as the Stone Age. The Stone Age is where people drastically made a change. They started using tools made out of stone, agriculture and domesticated animals. Paleolithic Age (old stone)- 200,000 b.c.-10,000 b.c.
Neolithic Age (new stone) – 10,000 b.c.-4,000 b.c.
Hunter-gatherers- people roamed the lands, hunted wild animals and ate edible plants. The men usually hunted bigger animals and used spears, rocks and strategy. They slept in caves or dwellings made from branches and animal skin. Their clothing was from animal skin. Innovations: they learned to build even sharper spears and better tools for digging out roots. Fire also helped them survive harsh winters and cook food. They developed long rage trade and religious belief which was a big leap in human evolution. They also painted in caves, usually of big animals to show that they were important in the lives of hunter-gatherers. Statuettes of venus figurine showed they believed in rituals of fertility and birth. Also they buried the dead with rituals and jewelry. This says hierarchy was there. Hierarchy- ranking system identifying people having more status and authority than others. NEOLITHIC AGE:
Started using agriculture to produce their own food by growing crops and domesticating animals. AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION-started in the Fertile Crescent, whose hilly region had the right combo of water, soil, climate, weather and mammals to capture for domestication. Also in Africa after the ice age, the lands became grasslands where people settled and domesticated cattle. In the Fertile Crescent people gathered more and more food from wild grain. The constant supply of food promoted fertility which leads to population growth. They also learned that the seeds of crops would grow more crops. Knowledge of plant life=more seeds=more food=better tools. Animals that lived in the Fertile Crescent included sheep, goats and cattle that were easily domesticated and accustomed to live with humans. Dogs were also domesticated but not eaten. URBAN REVOLUTION – villages became urban based civilizations when they were permanent, and they supported larger populations. People domesticated animals, grew their own food, hunting was used to see the masculinity in males, more and more children were born to help work on the crops and the civilizations were prone to war and disease. MESOPOTAMIA:
Semitic Language group-. Used by Mesopotamian societies.
SUMERIANS- one of the first cities, grew crops on dry plains in between the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers. Later the people irrigated the plains and turned the soil into rich farming land. The irrigated canals helped limit flooding and required constant maintenance. –which set up organized labor and promoted growth for centralized authority in city-states…which lead to kings and rulers. This time was known as the BRONZE AGE- a time where metals such as bronze and copper were used to build weapons and tools. CITY-STATE: urban center exercising political and economic control over the countryside around it. UR, URUK AND ERIDU-
Each similar, had established city-states with residents of about 20,000 residents or more. The cities had irrigated lands, workers working near urban areas and fortresses surrounding their territory. These city-states had temples known as ZIGGURATS-a temple of a stair-step design that soared up to ten stories high. Kings and their royal families were the highest ranking people in Sumerian Culture. Kings responsibility was to secure justice. Slaves were also acceptable in all Sumerian societies, and the slaves were not looked at as people but rather as property. CUNEIRFORM-
Developed by Sumerians around 3500 B.C. it is a script from wedge-shaped marks pressed into clay...