SOCIOLOGY OF THE THIRD WORLD: EXAM TWO STUDY GUIDE
What is the role of the nation state?
* Ownership of private property, means of production, provides support for disciplining the work force, provides and maintains the economic infrastructure, regulates conflict, and promotes consumption. Why did the nation state develop?
* Complex food production, population increases, technology and surplus of goods, and external conflict. According to R.J. Rummel’s book series, how many men, women and children were killed by the state between 1900-1987? * Almost 170 million
How does violence and genocide function in a nation state? * Creates and maintains boundaries, eliminates those who refuse to assimilate into the new ideal or the nation state to mark them as undesirables. What company gained the right to drill for oil in Saudi Arabia forming a partnership known as the Arabian-American Oil Company? Does the American company still own shares? Are they part of management? * Standard oil of California
* No shares or management since the 80s
What did U.S. firms gain for supporting Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi? * 40% share in Iranian Oil and right to maintain military bases in Iran Who is hurt by free trade? Who benefits?
* Small farmers, small businesses, laborers, citizens
* Big businesses, capitalists.
What is economic growth directly tied to?
* Energy consumption
What is the estimated doubling time in 2025?
* 70 years
Where is the fastest population growth taking place?
What problems will occur due to population increases in less developed countries? * Food shortages, overpopulation, harder to find jobs, etc. What issues were debated at the 1994 United Nations Conference? * Promoting modern contraception, promoting economic development, improving survival rate of infants and children, improving women status, and educating men. What assumptions about the population are made because of the culture of capitalism? * Population growth contributes to economic decline, growth in periphery historically resulted from decreased mortality, efforts to control population is hampered by religion, and education programs in western countries can help slow the birth rate globally. How has India and China attempted to control population growth? Were they successful? * India: family planning, government means, and convince women to use contraceptive. All failed. * China: Raise marriage age, increase birth intervals, limit number of children, provincial leaders assign birth quota, promote contraceptives, and incentives/penalties. Was successful. What are the determinants of population growth and decline?
* Fertility, death, and migration.
Food aid organizations estimate that almost 1500 children die per hour from what? * Hunger or dehydration
What are the myths of hunger?
* Food production, famine, food insufficiency, and over population. What are the four factors of agricultural production?
* Land, water, labor, and energy.
What are the advantages of swidden agriculture?
* Burning the torn down fields keeps away bugs so no pesticides are used and the ashes from the burning is good for the soil to grow food, these help keep our environment clean What are the gender norms in swidden agriculture and irrigation agriculture? * Swidden: men clear land, women burn the cuttings and care for crops * Irrigation: men do most of agriculture labor, women do domestic chores. What are the consequences of increased technology in agriculture? * Technology replaces human labor, wealth concentrated in fewer hands, those with capital are able to profit, small farms gives up their farms, need for capital to leads to investors, low food prices keep wages low, risk of monopolies, reduce agriculture jobs increase industrial jobs, keeps industrial pay low, and government must subsidize agriculture to keep prices low and pay low. What determines food...
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