It is an optical fiber which has a core of constant refractive index.there are two types of step index fibers:single mode si and multi mode si fiber

single mode step index fiber has only one mode of EM propagation (HE11) an has a core diameter of about 8-12 Um. and multi mode si has many mode of propagation and has a core of diameter of about 50 Um which allow many no of modes through it.

single mode step index has an adv of lower inter modal dispersion as there is only one mode present there is very low chance of dipersion multimode fiber has high intermod dispersion due to large no of propagating modes in it and moreover due to varying group velocities of propagating modes results in dispersion and as a result it restricts bandwidth in multi mode fiber

adv of multi mode over si fibers:

use of spatial non coherent sources i.e. use of led over laser diode

large NA and larger core diameter results in easy optical power transmission and easy connecting of same fibers

lower tolerance of fiber connectors

Graded index fiber

has a core of varying refractive index
it has a high value n at the core which dec radially towards the cladding has a multimode graded index fiber

multimode graded index fiber under parabolic index profile shows a parabolic transmission of rays through it

through geometrical optics,large no of refractions are observed due to varying refractive index from core to cladding

multimod graded index fiber hav a lower intermodal dispersion as compared to multimode step index however there are many modes of propagation but all are normalised through index grading

rays travelling through core hav a shorter path but move with a lower vel due to high n value. thus despite of all this it follows parabolic transmission and provide considerable bandwidth as compared to multi mode step index fiber

...Chapter 5
Graded-indexﬁbers (GRA)
This chapter describes the wave propagation in graded-indexﬁbers. In particular, the number of propagable waves and the optimal shape of the refractive index proﬁle will be discussed. The single-mode step-indexﬁber has a high bandwidth (essentially limited only by the waveguide dispersion and material), but has, due to the generally small ﬁber parameter V , either a small core diameter or a small numerical aperture. This leads to problems with linking such ﬁbers. Presuming multi-mode step-indexﬁbers (high V ) the eigenmodes have in general different propagation delays, resulting in a pulse broadening (see Hochfrequenztechnik I for further details). Thus: ∆t ≈ N1 L A2 2 · c · n2 N 1 (5.1)
N1 denotes the group index in the ﬁber core and L is the ﬁber length. This limits the transmission rate to approximately 20 to 100 Mbit/s based on 1 km of ﬁber length. For these reasons, searching for a refractive index proﬁle in which all the eigenmodes have nearly the same running time is necessary. The so-called graded-indexﬁber is a possible solution.
n
2
n
2 1
G
1
n
G
1
n
1
n (r) n
1
n (r) n...

...individual beta) results from the short positions in the relatively low beta stocks and the long positions in the relatively high beta stocks.
2(e) = [(–0.6142)2×3364] + [1.12652×5041] + [(–1.2181)2×3600] + [1.70582×3025]
= 21,809.6
(e) = 147.68%
The levered position in B [with high 2(e)] overcomes the diversification effect, and results in a high residual standard deviation. The optimal risky portfolio has a proportion w* in the active portfolio, computed as follows:
The negative position is justified for the reason stated earlier.
The adjustment for beta is:
Since w* is negative, the result is a positive position in stocks with positive alphas and a negative position in stocks with negative alphas. The position in the index portfolio is:
1 – (–0.0486) = 1.0486
c. To calculate Sharpe’s measure for the optimal risky portfolio, we compute the information ratio for the active portfolio and Sharpe’s measure for the market portfolio. The information ratio for the active portfolio is computed as follows:
A = = –16.90/147.68 = –0.1144
A2 = 0.0131
Hence, the square of Sharpe’s measure (S) of the optimized risky portfolio is:
S = 0.3662
Compare this to the market’s Sharpe measure:
SM = 8/23 = 0.3478 A difference of: 0.0184
The only-moderate improvement in performance results from only a small position taken in the active portfolio A because of its large residual variance.
d. To calculate the makeup of the complete...

...with different matters. At the end of this experiment, you will be able to:
Determine index of refraction of various solutions
Recognize the passage of refracted beams though different medium
Understand the concept of Snell’s Law
Understand how the speed of electromagnetic waves in different matters are related
Determine the critical angle for total internal reflection
Materials
550 cm Plexiglas Tank
Beaker stand
Test tube clench
Laser pen
Meter ruler
Angle ruler
1500 ml Water
1500 ml Vegetable oil
1500 ml Vinegar
Tape or chalk
Overview
This lab introduces the basic concepts of refraction and reflection of electromagnetic waves. You will be provided with water, vinegar, and an unknown solution. A laser pen will act as the wave source. By using trigonometric identities and Snell’s Law, you will be able to identify the index of refraction of these solutions. It is important to record each measurement as accurately as possible, for it will greatly affect your accuracy during the calculation for the unknown. The second part of the experiment allows you to identify the critical angle for total internal reflection in which only reflection on the interface will be observed.
In completion of the lab, each group will calculate the index of refraction of water and vinegar respectively. With these results, you will be able to find a range of values in which the unknown index of refraction resides....

...refractive index
Aim:
The aim of this experiment is to find the refractive index of a glass prism.
In this experiment, the independent variable is the angle of incidence, and the dependent variable is the angle of refraction.
Theory:
Snell’s law relates the angle of incidence and refraction to the ratio of the velocity of the wave in the different media. The formula for Snell’s law is the following:
Sin isinr = v1v2 = n Where i is the angle of incidence, r is the angle of refraction and v1 and v2 are the velocities of the wave in different media and n is the refractive index.
Light refracts when it passes from one medium to another. The ratio of the velocity of light in the two media is called the refractive index.
Materials and method:
For this experiment we used a half glass circle attached on the center of a laminated paper with a drawn circle around it, a blue/violet laser with a wavelength 447nm and a wood block.
First we started by placing the flat side of the half glass circle attached to the paper in front of the laser. Depending on the angle we wanted to find, we used the drawn circle on the paper to decide where to put the laser on the half side of the drawn circle. The angles of incidence we used were 10°, 20°, 30°, 40°, 50° and 60°. First we measured the angle of incidence, where we placed the wood block perpendicular to the ray. To control the variables, the laser should have the same...

...INDEX NUMBER
Introduction
Sebuah index menunjukkan perubahan relatif yang terjadi pada sebuah nilai dari satu periode ke periode yang lain. Kegunaan index, misalnya pada Consumer Price Index, adalah mengukur perubahan harga pada suatu kelompok besar dari barang-barang yang dibeli konsumen.
Simple Index Numbers
Angka index adalah suatu angka yang menunjukkan perubahan relatif pada harga, jumlah, atau nilai dibandingkan dengan suatu base period.
Jika angka index yang digunakan untuk mengukur perubahan relatif pada satu variabel saja, maka akan disebut sebagai index sederhana.
Alasan mengapa harus mengkonversikan data ke dalam index karena index merupakan cara yang mudah untuk menggambarkan perubahan suatu kelompok barang-barang yang beragam.
Susunan Angka Index
Rumus yang dapat digunakan dalam suatu index sederhana adalah:
Unweighted Index
Beberapa situasi mengharuskan kita untuk mengkombinasikan beberapa barang dan mengembangkan suatu index untuk membandingkan cost dari kumpulan barang-barang tersebut dalam dua periode waktu yang berbeda. Ada 2 cara untuk mengkombinasikan barang-barang untuk menentukan indexnya, seperti yang tertera pada tabel berikut:
| |Unweighted Index...

...MODEL INDEX-TUNGGAL
(THE SINGLE-INDEX MODEL)
Markowitz model dan single-index model keduanya adalah model portofolio untuk meminimumkan varian. Perbedaan kedua model pada rumus yang digunakan untuk menentukan varian portofolio. Markowitz model rumusnya diasumsikan untuk kondisi sangat sempurna, sedangkan single-index model diasumsikan terdapat sisa saham yang tidak berkorelasi sempurna.
Diskripsi dan Estimasi Single-Index Model
Single-index model sering disebut sebagai Sharpe single-index model sebab William Sharpe, pada awalnya mengembangkan model dan menjelaskan berbagai penggunaannya dalam investasi. Sebagai salah satu alternative, single-index model dapat digunakan untuk perkiraan hasil pengembalian (return) berbagai sekuritas individual maupun portofolio. Model ini didasarkan atas asumsi bahwa hasil pengembalian suatu sekuritas maupun portfolio dapat ditunjukkan sebagai suatu fungsi linier dari haril pengembalian indek pasar. Model ini berdasarkan pada asumsi bahwa hasil pengembalian (return) beberapa sekuritas atau portofolio dapat ditunjukkan sebagai fungsi linier dari indeks hasil pengembalian (return) pasar. Contohnya Indeks Harga Saham Gabungan di Bursa Efek Jakarta ; S&P Index.
Secara aljabar, model single-index ditunjukkan sebagai berikut...

...refractive index of each substance at different temperatures (22°C, 34°C, 46°C,
58°C and 70°C) using the Abbe refractometer. By obtaining the densities, the information can be
plugged in to several equations to determine the unknown composition. The binary mixture was
determined to 71% water and 29% 2-propanol.
Introduction
Refraction is the bending of a wave when it enters a medium where it’s speed is different,
and this results in the change of direction in which light propagates. When light passes through
two isotropic media, some portion of light approaching the interface between them at an incident
angle α is reflected back to the first medium while the rest propagates into the second medium at an
angle of refraction β (Fig. 1).1 Snell’s law, or the law of refraction, is a formula used to describe
the relationship between the angles of incidence and refraction, when referring to light or other
waves passing through a boundary between to different isotropic media.2 This law states that the
ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is equal to the ratio
of the speed of light in the original medium to the speed of light in the refraction medium:
(1)
where n1 is the refractive of medium 1 and n2 is the refractive index of medium 2.3
Figure 1. Refraction of Light
Snell’s law is often stated in the indexes of refraction of the two media rather than speeds
of light in the media.3...

...a. Targeting
Target market means that a group of customers that the business has decided to aim its marketing efforts and ultimately its merchandise towards. The company needs to really know about their target market. So do the targets. It is because, by really knowing your target; you would not pay too much on wrong advertising style. For example PINK target market are woman age 18 – 30 years. So when PINK wants to create TV Commercials; PINK need to put it on AXN, Fashion Channel or FOX channel, not in Disney Channel. It is because, so many woman on that ages watch these channels.
Target market position is inside Served Available Market and total Available Market. It means here, the total available markets here are women on age 18 – 23 years old. Then the Served Available market are women that have income more than $ 500 / month (In Indonesia case). It is because, as PINK is still under the Victoria’s Secret flag; so then PINK price is on medium high categorize. Moreover, the served target market also need to know about fashion, up-to-date, and really want to be seen as a sexy woman. So if we are talking about PINK Target market:
The target markets of PINK by Victoria’s Secret Products are:
Age group 18 – 30 years old
College students
Have income more than $500 / month
And young, hip, and fashionable style scholars.
PINK by Victoria’s Secret is targeting their market by using Concentrated Targeting Strategy. It means that PINK defines...