Chapter One Review
May 21st, 2013
1. Describe what sport and exercise psychology is.
a. Sport and exercise psychology is the scientific study of the behavior of people engaged in sport and exercise activities and the application of the knowledge gained. Researchers in the field have two major objectives: a) to understand how psychological factors affect a person’s motor performance and b) to understand how participating in physical activity affects a person’s psychological development. Despite enormous growth in recent years, sports psychology dates back to the early 1900’s and is best understood within the framework of its six distinct historical periods.
2. Understand what sport and exercise psychology specialists do. a. Contemporary sport and exercise psychologists engage in different roles, including conducting research, teaching, and consulting with athletes and exercisers.
3. Know what training is required of a sport and exercise psychologist. a. Not all sport and exercise psychology specialists are trained in the same way. Clinical sport and exercise psychologists are trained specifically in psychology to treat athletes and exercisers with severe emotional disorders, such as substance abuse or anorexia. Educational sport psychology specialists receive training in exercise and sport science fields; they serve as mental coaches, educating athletes and exercisers about psychological skills and their development. They are not trained to assist people with severe emotional disorders.
4. Understand major developments in history of sports and exercise psychology. a. Sport and exercise psychology has a long and rich history dating back more than 100 years. Its history falls into six periods. i. First period: the early years (1893-1920) was characterized by isolated studies. ii. Griffith Era: (1921 – 1938) Coleman Griffith became the first American to specialize in the area. iii. Third period: preparation for the future (1939 – 1965) was characterized by the field’s scientific development attributable to the educational efforts of Franklin Henry. iv. Establishment of Academic Discipline (1966-1977) sport and exercise psychology became a valued component of academic discipline of physical education. v. Fifth Period: Multidisciplinary science and practice (1978 – 2000) was characterized by tremendous growth as the field became more accepted and respected by the public. Interest in applied issues and the growth and development of exercise psychology were evident. Training in the field took a more multidisciplinary perspective and the field wrestled with a variety of professional practice issues. vi. The Final period of contemporary sport and exercise psychology (2001 – Present) has been distinguished by continued growth worldwide, considerable diverse research, and interest in application and consulting. Exercise psychology flourishes.
5. Distinguish between scientific and professional practice knowledge. a. Sport and exercise psychology is above all a science. For this reason you need to understand the basic scientific process and how scientific knowledge is developed. Scientific knowledge alone, however, is not enough to guide professional practice. You must also understand how professional practice knowledge develops.
6. Integrate experimental and scientific knowledge.
a. Scientific knowledge must be integrated with the knowledge gained from professional practice. Integrating scientific and professional practice knowledge will greatly benefit you as you work in applied sport and exercise settings.
7. Compare and contrast orientations to the field.
a. Several approaches can be taken to sport and exercise psychology, including the psychophysiological, social-psychological, and cognitive-behavioral orientations. Psychophysiological sport psychologists study physiological processes of the brain and their...