Soc 100 Final Study Guide
1. What is demography?
The study of the size, composition, growth or shrinkage, and distribution of human populations. (pg 568) 2. Be familiar with the Malthus theorem.
Thomas Malthus was an English economist. Wrote a book called An Essay on the Principle of Population – theorized that although the food supply increases arithmetically (1,2,3,… etc.), population grows geometically (exponentially) (2,4,8,16,…etc). (pg 568) 3. From the beginning of time, how long did it take the earth to gain the first billion people? From the beginning of time until 1800 to reach the first billion people. (pg 569) 4. What is demographic freefall?
A prediction of some anti-malthusians who believe that as more nations enter stage 4 of the demographic transition, the world’s population will peak at about 8-9 billion, then begin to grow smaller. Two hundred years from now, we will have a lot fewer people on earth. (pg 571) 5. What impact does a declining standard of living create in a country? Conflict theorists point out that a declining standard of living poses the threat of political instability – protests, riots, even revolution – and in response, repression by the government. (pg 576) 6. What is the fertility rate?
The number of children that the average woman bears. The world’s overall fertility rate is 2.5. (pg 577) 7. What is fecundity?
The number of children that women are capable of bearing. (pg 577) 8. How do demographers determine a country’s growth rate? Add and subtract the three demographic variables – fertility, mortality, and net migration. The country’s growth rate is the net change after people have been added to and subtracted from a population. (growth rate equals births minus deaths plus net migration). (pg 579) 9. What two nations employ female infanticide most often? China and India (pg 581)
10. Today what % of americans live in cities vs. rural
79% (pg 586)
11. According to William Wilson, what transformed the inner cities into ghettos? Suburbanization (pg 596)
12. Define collective behavior.
Extraordinary activities carried out by groups of people; includes lynchings, rumors, panics, urban legends, fads, and fashions. It is actions by a group of people who bypass the usual norms governing their behavior and do something unusual. (pg 604) 13. Who is Lebon? What he had to say about the collective mind. What he was about. Gustave LeBon was a French psychologist that built on Charles Mackay’s idea of “herd mentality”. He stated in a book in 1895 and stressed how people feel anonymous in crowds, and less accountable for what they do. Some even develop feelings of invincibility and come to think that they can do almost anything. A collective mind develops and people are swept up by almost any suggestion. (pg 604) 14. Yamaguchi and Horowitz, how did they say people behave in crowds? In a rational manner (pg 606 ??)
15. Turner and Killian (2 questions)
i) How do people react in abonormal situations (novel situations)? People are predictive and usual norms are adequate for dealing with everyday events. When this is disrupted, ordinary norms may not cover the new situation, and theremore new norms may emerge. People develop novel definitions of right and wrong, feeling that the new circumstances justify actions otherwise considered wrong. (pg 606) ii) They define different groups – what are exploiters? Ego involved: feel a personal stake in the unusual event.
Concerned: also have personal interest in the event but less so than the ego involved. Insecure: care little about the matter. Join the crowd to give them a sense of power, security and belonging. Curious spectator: care little about the issue. Simply curious about what is going on. Exploiters: don’t care about the event. Use it for personal gain such as selling food or T-shirts. (example: during OJ Simpson trial, people were selling T-shirts outside of Simpson’s house)...
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