Simple Neuro Study Guide

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NEUROLOGICAL SYSTEM
DIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM:
1.Central Nervous System (CNS)=Brain & Spinal Cord
2.Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
a.Autonomic Nervous System=System Homeostasis
b.Sympathetic Nervous System=Fight or Flight
c.Parasympathetic Nervous System=Rest & Digest
d.Enteric Nervous System=GI system
NEURONS
1.3 parts of a nerve cell
a.Dendrites
b.Cell Body
c.Axon
2.Types of nerves:
a.Afferent Neurons=sensory, conduct impulses TO the brain
b.Efferent Neurons=motor, conduct impulses AWAY from the brain c.Interneurons
3.Types of Cells in the CNS:
a.Astrocytes
b.Microglia
c.Oligodendrocytes-form myelin sheath of CNS
d.Schwann Cells-form myelin sheath of PNS
4.White matter vs. Gray matter
5.Myelin and its function
6.Nodes of Ranvier
7.Ganglion-clump of nerve cell bodies in the nerve tract
NERVE IMPULSE
1.Self-Propagating
2.Action Potential
a.Potassium (K+) primarily inside the cell and Sodium (Na+) primarily outside the cell WHILE AT REST b.Stimulus applied to nerve
c.Na+ rushes into the cell very quickly resulting in a sudden positive charge inside the cell

d.K+ channels are triggered to open and K+ flows out of the cell to balance the change in charge. 3.Review the sodium-potassium pump
SALTATORY CONDUCTION
1.Rapid conduction via myelin.
2.Review mechanism of conduction and purpose.
SYNAPSES
1.Presynaptic Neuron-releases neurotransmitters into the synapse 2.Postsynaptic Neuron-contains receptors for neurotransmitters released by presynaptic neuron. 3.Synapse-the space between presynaptic neuron and postsynaptic neuron: where nerve cells “talk” to each other. 4.Review Neurotransmitters

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (BRAIN)
1.Brain Stem: Medulla Oblongata, Pons, Midbrain
2.Diencephalon: tucked between midbrain and cerebrum
a.Hypothalmus (Posterior Pituitary Gland), Thalmus (emotions of pleasantness), Pineal Gland 3.Cerebellum (balance)
4.Cerebrum (cognitive function)
5.Coverings:...
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