SIGMUND FREUD’S PSYCHOANALYTICAL THEORY
The most noticeable part of our psychological life is our personality. When we speak of personality, it involves a person’s character, behaviour, attitudes, qualities, and traits of an individual. It is, in fact one of the basic foundation of the study of psychology. Many psychologist coined in different theories of Personality and one such person is Sigmund Freud, who coined “Psychoanalytical Theory.” He is considered the Father of Psychoanalysis and is noted for establishing the field of verbal psychotherapy. Originally trained as a neurologist, Freud is best known for his theories about the unconscious mind, dreams, infantile sexuality, libido, repression, and transference all of which continue to influence the field of psychology. Freud's account of the mind's structure ( id, ego, and super ego) led to a new understanding of human psychological development and the treatment of psychological disturbance. In this paper we will be studying the four main central part of Freud topics namely; levels on consciousness, the structure of personality, defense mechanisms and psychosexual stages of development in detail. BIOGRAPHY
Sigmund Freud was born on May 6, 1885 in the town of Freiburg, Moravia of Jewish parents. His father was wool merchant and his mother was the second wife and 20 years younger slender and attractive. Sigmund Freud was her first son so she was very protective and loving towards him. He felt passionate and sexual attachment toward her which later on set the stage for the development of the “Oedipus stage.” As a young boy Freud excelled in studies was highly ambitious. He received medical degree in the year 1883 and entered into private practice but he wanted to pursue his career in scientific research and so he came under the influence of eminent psychologist Ernst Brucke and worked as an assistant in neurological problems in lower animals. Later he joined French neurologist Jean Charcot a pioneer in the use of hypnosis in Paris and spent a short time as a resident in neurology and director of a children's ward in Berlin. He came back to Vienna, married his fiancée of many years Martha Bernays, and set up a practice in neuropsychiatry, with the help of Joseph Breuer. Freud immigrated to England just before World War II when Vienna became an increasing dangerous place for Jews and not long afterward, he died of mouth and jaw cancer that he had suffered from for the last 20 years of his life. His eldest daughter Anna Freud followed his footsteps and completed his work. THEORY
In 1886, Freud after many years of clinical practice and his own sexual conflicts, he was convinced that sexual conflicts were the primary cause of all neurosis or emotional or mental disturbance. In saying so Freud concluded that the mental life of human being are divided into three distinctive levels that is conscious, preconscious an unconscious. The conscious covers a small area so it plays a relatively small role in personality development and functioning. It contains all the information that a person is paying attention to at any given time. Working closely with the conscious mind is what Freud called the preconscious, what we might today call "available memory:" it contains all the information outside of a person’s attention but readily available if needed. The unconscious covers relatively a large area. The unconscious contains thoughts, feelings, desires, and memories of which people have no awareness but that influence every aspect of their day-to-day lives such as our drives or instincts, and things that are put there because we can't bear to look at them, such as the memories and emotions associated with trauma. Example: Stan’s unconscious might contain angry feelings toward his mother or a traumatic incident he experienced at age four. Freud believed that information in the unconscious emerges in slips of the tongue, jokes, dreams, illness symptoms, and the associations people make....
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