Science Final Exam Review

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Science Final Exam Review
Chemistry
Terms:
Pure Substance: a type of matter that consists of only one type of particle Compound: a pure substance that is composed of two or more different elements that are chemically joined Element: a pure substance that cannot be broken down by any physical or chemical means Mixture: contains more than one type of particle

Heterogeneous Mixture: a mixture in which you can distinguish between different types of matter; also called a mechanical mixture Homogeneous Mixture: a uniform mixture of two or more substances; also called a solution Physical Properties: characteristics of a substance that can be determined without changing the composition of that substance * uses direct observations with five senses and measuring instruments * two types of physical properties: qualitative & quantative - qualitative: property of a substance that is not measured and does not have a numerical value (ex: state, colour, odour, texture)

- quantative: propter of a substance that is measured and has a numerical value (ex: mass, volume, hardness, viscosity, electrical conductivity) Chemical Properties: measures how a substance reacts with another substance * common chemical properties: combustibility (reacts with oxygen and releases heat and light), reacts with acid, reacts with water, photosensitivity (breaks down when exposed to light), chemical change (change in the starting substance and a production in a new substance) * clues that chemical change has occurred: change in colour, change of odour, bubbles, a new solid is seen (called precipitate), change in temperature or light, not easily reversed Family: a column (groups) of elements with similar properties * four main groups: Alkali Metals, Alkali Earth Metals, Halogens and Noble Gases Period: rows on the periodic table

Metal: an element that is lustrous, malleable, ductile and conducts heat and electricity; located on the left and central parts of the periodic table; all solid except mercury Metalloid: an element with characteristics of both metal and non-metal elements Non-metal: an element that does not conduct heat or electricity, is dull, non-lustrous and brittle; found on upper right portion of periodic table; all liquid except bromine Density: a measure of how much mass is contained in a given unit volume of a substance; D=M/V Standard Atomic Notation: another way to represent an element’s symbol with the mass and atomic number; atomic mass on top left and atomic number on bottom left of element abbreviation Molecule: atoms that can chemically join with other atoms to form small units Chemical Formula: the notation used to indicate the type and number of atoms in a pure substance Diatomic Molecule: the seven elements that will never exist alone in nature and will either come bonded to another element or itself; they are hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, bromine, nitrogen, chlorine, iodine Covalent Bond: bond formed between two non-metal elements; these elements share electrons to become stable Ionic Bond: bond formed between one non-metal element and one metal element; these elements give or take away electrons to become stable Concepts:

- The particle theory includes five main points:
* all matter is made up of tiny particles that have empty spaces between them * different substances are made up of different kinds of particles * particles are in constant motion
* particles move faster as temperature increases
* particles attract each other
- An isotope is an atom with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons. - The families of the periodic table are alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens and noble gases. The alkali metals are the most reactive metals and the halogens are the most reactive gases. - Having all 8 valence electrons on its outer shell in a Bohr Rutherford diagram is called a stable octet. - The group that the element is in...
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