Romantic Period

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  • Topic: Hector Berlioz, Franz Liszt, Romantic music
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  • Published : April 24, 2013
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Romantic Period
1820-1900

General Notes:

Cultural Movement that stressed
Emotion
Imagination
Individualism

Diverse and Complex

Fascination with Fantasy

Revered
Middle Ages
Chivalry
Romance

Inspired by
Medieval Folk Ballads
Tales of Fantasy
Adventure

Coincided with the Industrial
Revolution

Visual Arts of the Period:

Most important influence on painters and sculptures was Nature

Music in Society:

Making music in the home took on great importance
Piano became a favorite instrument
Women had greater roles as performers, composers, and patrons
Virtuosos were revered: Favorites
Pianist- Franz Liszt
Violinist- Niccolo Paganini

Music of the Period:

Emphasized
Self Expression
Individuality of Style

Favorite Subject
The Middle Ages
Shakespeare's Plays

Nationalism is a great influence

Orchestra was larger
Up to 100 musicians
Brass section became more powerful with the addition of the trombones, tubas more horns and trumpets.

In the woodwind section the addition of the contrabassoon, bass clarinet, English horn and piccolo as regular members of the orchestra
Cymbals, triangle and harp were often used to create more brilliant and sensuous sounds

Composers
were no longer employed by Aristocrats
most has to have a second form of employment to live a few had wealthy patrons to support them while the composed

Elements Of Music:

Melody

Melodies are often long, complex and highly expressive

Recurring melodies unify longer works

Harmony

Harmonies are rich, colorful, and complex

Rhythm

Extremely diverse

Tempos are flexible and may change frequently

Dynamics

Changes can be sudden and gradual

Extremely wide and ass considerable emotion, excitement and intensity

Texture

Generally homophonic, but may fluctuate to provide contrast

Tone Color

Wide range of expressive tone color

Woodwinds,brass and percussion play a prominent role

Composers experiment with unusual combinations of instruments or by having instruments play in unusual ways

Mood

Extreme interest in nature, death, the fantastic, the macabre, and the diabolical

Emphasis on self-expression and the development of a unique personal musical style

Form

More Expansive and treated freely

New Forms developed

Symphonies are longer

Composers and New Forms

Romantic Period
1820-1900

Johannes Brahms- born in Germany, was a romantic who breathed new life into classical forms. He created masterpieces in all the traditional forms (except opera). Symphonies, concertos, songs, extended choral works and many chamber pieces.

Listening Example
Symphony No. 3 in F Major
Johannes Brahms
Cd 4- #25

Antonin Dvorak- was from Prague. Immigrated to the US and in 1892 became the director of the National Conservatory of Music in New York. Spent summers in Iowa where he heard the music of the American Heartland. Preferred the traditional symphonic form.

Listening Example
Symphony No. 9 in E Minor (from the New World)
Antonin Dvorak
CD 4- #11

Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky- was the most famous Russian composer. He fused national and international elements to produce intensely subjective and passionate music.

1.Concert Overture- is one movement , usually in sonata form. It is modeled after the opera overture which establishes the mood of the opera. But the concert overture is not intended to usher in a stage work; it is an independent composition.

Franze Schuert- master of the romantic Art Song; his income came entirely from composition. He was not a conductor or a virtuoso performer.

Art Songs- Solo voice with piano accompaniment. There are three types of Art songs developed during the Romantic Period

1.Strophic form- when a poem has several stanzas and the same...
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