•Cultural Movement that stressed
Diverse and Complex
•Fascination with Fantasy
⁃Medieval Folk Ballads
⁃Tales of Fantasy
•Coincided with the Industrial
Visual Arts of the Period:
•Most important influence on painters and sculptures was Nature
Music in Society:
⁃Making music in the home took on great importance
⁃Piano became a favorite instrument
⁃Women had greater roles as performers, composers, and patrons
•Virtuosos were revered: Favorites
•Pianist- Franz Liszt
•Violinist- Niccolo Paganini
Music of the Period:
⁃Individuality of Style
⁃The Middle Ages
⁃Nationalism is a great influence
•Orchestra was larger
•Up to 100 musicians
•Brass section became more powerful with the addition of the trombones, tubas more horns and trumpets.
•In the woodwind section the addition of the contrabassoon, bass clarinet, English horn and piccolo as regular members of the orchestra
•Cymbals, triangle and harp were often used to create more brilliant and sensuous sounds
⁃were no longer employed by Aristocrats
⁃most has to have a second form of employment to live a few had wealthy patrons to support them while the composed
Elements Of Music:
•Melodies are often long, complex and highly expressive
•Recurring melodies unify longer works
•Harmonies are rich, colorful, and complex
•Tempos are flexible and may change frequently
•Changes can be sudden and gradual
•Extremely wide and ass considerable emotion, excitement and intensity
•Generally homophonic, but may fluctuate to provide contrast
•Wide range of expressive tone color
•Woodwinds,brass and percussion play a prominent role
•Composers experiment with unusual combinations of instruments or by having instruments play in unusual ways
•Extreme interest in nature, death, the fantastic, the macabre, and the diabolical
•Emphasis on self-expression and the development of a unique personal musical style
•More Expansive and treated freely
•New Forms developed
•Symphonies are longer
Composers and New Forms
Johannes Brahms- born in Germany, was a romantic who breathed new life into classical forms. He created masterpieces in all the traditional forms (except opera). Symphonies, concertos, songs, extended choral works and many chamber pieces.
Symphony No. 3 in F Major
Cd 4- #25
Antonin Dvorak- was from Prague. Immigrated to the US and in 1892 became the director of the National Conservatory of Music in New York. Spent summers in Iowa where he heard the music of the American Heartland. Preferred the traditional symphonic form.
Symphony No. 9 in E Minor (from the New World)
CD 4- #11
Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky- was the most famous Russian composer. He fused national and international elements to produce intensely subjective and passionate music.
1.Concert Overture- is one movement , usually in sonata form. It is modeled after the opera overture which establishes the mood of the opera. But the concert overture is not intended to usher in a stage work; it is an independent composition.
Franze Schuert- master of the romantic Art Song; his income came entirely from composition. He was not a conductor or a virtuoso performer.
Art Songs- Solo voice with piano accompaniment. There are three types of Art songs developed during the Romantic Period
1.Strophic form- when a poem has several stanzas and the same...