Respiratory Syncytial Virus (Rsv)

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I. Cause:
* RSV is caused by a virus. It can be spread through droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes or by contact with the nasal or oral secretions of an infected person, either directly (i.e., kissing) or indirectly (i.e., touching a doorknob). II. Signs/Symptoms:

* Runny nose
* Decreased appetite and activity level
* Coughing
* Sneezing
* Fever
* Wheezing/Difficulty breathing
* Irritability
III. Incidence:
* Anyone at any age may contract RSV
* Nearly all children will have had RSV by their 2nd birthday * Hospitalization is rarely required and generally occur in infants under 6 months of age IV. Risk Factors:
* Premature infants
* Children under 2 years of age that suffer from congenital heart or chronic lung disease * Children and adults with compromised immune systems
* Adults that are 65 and older
V. Diagnostic Tests:
* RT-PCR assay test of secretions
* Antigen detection testing
* Cell culture
VI. Treatments:
* No specific treatment for RSV
* Hospitalization in severe cases
i. Supplemental oxygen
ii. Suctioning of mucus from airways
iii. Intubation with mechanical ventilation
VII. Prognosis:
* Generally a full recovery in 1-2 weeks
* Can cause death in infants and the elderly (rare)
* May be linked to a slightly higher risk of recurrent wheezing VIII. Mortality rate:
* 66,000-199,000 annual deaths world-wide are linked to RSV [ (4 million deaths caused annually by acute respiratory infections, 2010) ] * Approximately 2% of those that require hospitalization die IX. Prevention:

* Frequent handwashing
* Wiping down hard surfaces with soap & water or disinfectant * Not sharing cups/utensils
* Covering mouth/nose when coughing/sneezing
* Not kissing those infected
* Limiting...
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