Research Paper

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Lesson 1

Meaning of Research, The Research Process and Characteristics

Objectives:

1. To understand the nature and meaning of research.
2. To know continuous search after new knowledge of a fundamental nature. 3. To apply the goals of research in the development of technically trained people of various levels to man science agencies, industrial firms and allied organizations. 4. To recognize the need for information

• accurate information is the basis for intelligent decision making. • helps when formulating appropriate research questions, such as “What is the topic?” • can define focus and timeline – “Do I have enough time to find the appropriate information on my topic?” 5. Save time by searching effectively.

6. Create better quality research paper.

Introduction:

When man faces problems, he sooner or later seeks solution. Research is born out of these problems and of man’s determination to solve them. Man’s progress over the years has depended on research. As a matter of fact, our times have been described as a period of fabulous accomplishment. Today virtually every field of life has been touched by the research process.

Who are Researchers?

Persons who has an inquisitive mind, one who is not satisfied until he achieve his goal.

Goal:

Explore and gain an understanding of human behavior and social life and thereby gain a greater control over them.

WHAT IS RESEARCH?

“It is a process of scientific thinking that leads to the discovery or establishments of new knowledge or truth. It is not a subjective expression of ideas or opinions.” (Isidro and Malolos, 1979)

Characteristics of Scientific Thinking:

1. It is based on facts.
2. It starts from complex problems.
3. It is free from personal bias or opinion.
4. It uses objective measurements.

“The careful unbiased investigation of a problem, based in so far as possible upon demonstrable facts and involving refined distinctions, interpretations and usually some generalizations.” (Good, 1956)

“it is a systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena.” (kerlinger, 1973)

“It is systematic and refined technique of thinking, employing specialized tools, instruments and procedures in order to obtain a more adequate solution of a problem than would be possible under ordinary means.” (Crawford, 1946)

“It is a continuous discovery and exploration of the unknown.” (Good and Scates, 1972)

Steps or Sequence of Problem Solving as proposed by Good and Scates

1. Formulation and development of the problem for investigation, and survey of the related literature.

2. Selection and use of one or more appropriate methods for gathering evidence, together with analysis and interpretation of data.

3. Reporting and implementation of the findings.

THE RESEARCH PROCESS

It is a systematic, a carefully planned activity which is done in an orderly manner. It is a step by step process in completing a course assignment which is a requirement in a research paper.

Research which literally means to “Search again” that is one looks for previous findings of a problem and gathers his own data on the same problem to confirm, reject, modify or add new findings.

Steps in Research Process

1. Identification of the Problem

2. Reading for concepts, theories and previous findings

3. Formulation of the Theoretical Background

4. Formulation of Hypotheses

5. Identification of threats to validity of data

6. Scientification of threats to validity of data.

7. Construction of Research

8. Construction and Validation of Instruments

9. Data Collection and Analysis

10. Findings

11. Conclusions

12. Recommendations

13. Another Problem

Purpose of Writing the Research Report

The aims purpose of the research...
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