Know terms that are in bold in either text [and their definitions, of course] Know terms defined in the margins of the Criminalistics chapters [& their definitions, of course] Use the Learning Objectives as guides
Criminalistics Chapter 1 Introduction:
1: How different fields of science are involved in forensics? - Is the application of science to the criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY PHYSICS anything biological!! Answer is always BIOLOGICAL ANSWER! Forensic Odontology (Dentsits)- Ted Bundy
2: History and development of forensic science – Who are the “key players” and their contributions? - Alphonse Bertillion: devised the first scientific system of personal identification that worked for awhile until 2 gentlemen with same name had same bertillion measurements - Francis Galton: Conducted the first definitive study of fingerprints and their classification - Edmond Locard: Incorporated Gross’ principles within a workable crime laboratory - Locards exchange principle
3: Be able to describe Locard’s exchange principle.
- Every criminal can be connected to a crime by dust particles carried from the crime scene - When a criminal comes in contact with an object or person, a cross-transfer of evidence occurs.
4: How crime labs are organized in general?
- Approximately 350 public crime labs operate at various levels of government-federal, state, county, and municipal. Forensics labs are divided into units, analytical sciences, fingerprint unit, toxicology etc. Depending on agencies these vary. Small = less money not as many units, larger = more money usually more units.
5: How and why have the number of crime labs increased since mid- to late-1900s [20th century]? - Supreme Court decisions have placed great emphasis on scientifically evaluated evidence 60s - Crime labs inundated with drug specimens due to accelerated drug abuse (drug related criminal activity) - Advent of DNA profiling / DNA technology
-Frye Standard/Daubert come into play
6: What are the services offered by the “full-service” crime laboratory – basic & optional? BASIC
Physical Science unit
Latent fingerprint unit
Voiceprint Analysis Unit
7: What is the Frye standard?
- Set guidelines for determining the admissibility of scientific evidence into the courtroom - Evidence in question must be “generally accepted” by the scientific community
8: Describe the Daubert decision.
- The Supreme Court asserted that the Frye standard is not an absolute prerequisite to the admissibility of scientific evidence - Trial judges were said to be ultimately responsible as “gatekeepers” for the admissibility and validity of the scientific evidence presented in their courts, as well as all expert testimony.
9: What are the proper handling and package methods of different types of evidence? Place each different item or similar items collected at different locations in separate containers. Packaging evidence separately prevents damage through contact and prevents cross-contamination. Blood = paper bags/container-not air tight seal. No paper envelopes! “Druggist” fold used to keep things in.
10: Be familiar with the function of the other forensic science services describe in your text and in lecture– [pathology, toxicology, anthropology, entomology, psychiatry, odontology, engineering, etc.] - Pathology: involves the investigation of unnatural, unexplained, or violent deaths - Toxicology: examines body fluids and organs for the presence of drugs and poisons - Anthropology: is concerned primarily with the identification and examination of human skeletal...