Most important things
What I have done
What I have learnt
How I found the lesson
Introduction to psychology
Perspectives of psychology
What we can learn
In the first unit, we’ll explore the goals of psychology, the major approaches that are used to understand behavior and answer questions, the historical roots of psychology, current research areas, and possible careers in the broad field of psychology. We want to know, how is human behaviour “working”, how we can remember and on turn why we forget? My position as a student studying social studies makes this an important issue for me. There is very close connection and co-operate to other subjects as sociology, politics and our work in care sector. I would say, that psychology is somewhere in the middle. As a care worker, study of psychology can help me better understand and empathize to client’s behaviour with different levels of dementia. What do psychologists study?
First lesson has been presented idea of psychology; basic views and definitions. What does psychology mean? How can we explain the psychology as subject or science? First think is the study of people’s mind, knowledge of behaviour. According to British Psychological Society, usually definition is ‘the scientific study of behaviour’. Psychology is the systematic, scientific study of behaviours and mental processes. There are some views in psychology. We can speak about several ‘perspectives’; points of view, stances for academically arguing and theoretical approach: * Biological – e.g. doctor, nurse
* Cognitive – e.g. teacher, early years practitioner
* Evolutionary – “where we come from”, our evolution from ‘caveman’ * Social psychology – e.g. social/care worker, what about we thinking * Humanist psychology – e.g. therapist, what about human wishing Therefore we can speak about schools and theories:
* Psychodynamic approach
* Behaviourist approach
* Social Psychology
* Social Constructionist
* Evolutionary approach
This is first view inside the psychology, how wide is field of psychology. We can find many applications of psychology in our life, e.g. clinical, counselling, educational, forensic, health, occupational and sports psychology. Psychology can help to us understand many answers of basic questions about our behaviour, how people feeling and thinking, what can we remember and why. This difference forced me to reflect on the aims of this course—how communication skills are not generic, but differ according to time and place.
Date: 24/09/2012 Tuesday
Aims:Nature vs. Nurture
Nature- nature view of humans and their behaviour,
- knowledge of instincts
- essentially biological
Nurture- we learn our behaviour from others
- collective impact of all environmental factors that affect growth and behaviour (Penguin Dictionary of Psychology)
* Freud - much of our behaviour is instinctual
* Rain - brain abnormalities may contribute
* Dement & Kleitman - sleep & dreams are biologically driven * Gould - intelligence was inherited
* Sperry - how we process information
* Milgram (Ps were obedient to an authority figure).
* Zimbardo (Ps had learned over their life what prison guards and prisoners behave like - what their social roles consist of. They were therefore in a position to fulfil that role when they were assigned to one of those groups). * Piliavin (the situation we are in and the presence, or absence, of others influences our pro-social/altruistic behaviour). * Tajfel (being the member of a group influences us to behave in a discriminatory way). * Rosenhan (only the situation determines whether we are viewed as insane or not) * Gardner & Gardner (we learn language and therefore so can a chimp, rather than there being a biological basis to language development). *...