Psychology: Development Across the Lifespan

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Chapter 9: Development Across the Lifespan
1. Lifespan Developmental Psychology - Branch of psychology concerned with the systematic physical, cognitive, and psychosocial processes that lead to these changes that occur throughout life 2. Basic Issues in Developmental Psychology

a. Nature and Nurture
i. Nature - Theory that holds that physical and cognitive development is genetically determined ii. Nurture - Theory that holds that physical and cognitive development is determined by environmental factors iii. Behavior Genetics - Combines psychology and biology; Studies the influences of heredity and environment on behavior b. Research Methods

iv. Longitudinal Study - Research technique in which the same participants are tested or observed repeatedly over a period of time v. Cross-sectional Study - Research technique which participants, often of different ages, are tested or observed during a limited time span or only once vi. Sequential Study - Combine the cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches in one study vii. Cohort - Group of individuals born in the same period 3. Development From Conception to Birth

c. Zygote - One-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an ovum d. Mitosis - Process of cell division in which each cell contains the same genetic information as other cells e. Embryo - A developing organism during the stage when the major organ systems are formed f. Heredity

viii. Chromosomes - Segments f genetic material located in the nucleus of each cell; human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes (numbered according to size), one of each pair being inherited from each parent ix. Genes - Units of hereditary material the line the chromosomes and provide information concerning the form and function of each cell x. Deoxyribonuecleic Acid (DNA) - chemical name for the genetic material located in the nucleus of each cell xi. Polygenic Heredity

1. Polygenic Inheritance - Principle of heredity whereby complex traits, such as intelligence and personality, are determined by many genes xii. Determination of Sex
2. Traditionally, women were thought to be the ones who determined the sex of the offspring, but it has been discovered that the male is actually responsible for this; Women contribute an X chromosome while Men contribute an X or a Y chromosome, the combo then determines the sex of the offspring xiii. Sex-linked Traits

3. Genes located on a sex chromosome are called sex-linked genes 4. Men are more at risk than women for inherited disorders, due to the lack dominant genes of the Y chromosome g. Prenatal Development

xiv. Fetus - The developing baby from about the 9th week after conception until birth xv. Placenta - Organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy; it produces hormones that maintain pregnancy, transmits nourishment to the fetus, and filters out certain harmful substances xvi. Barriers to Prenatal Development

5. Inadequate nourishment, generally due to lack of financial resources xvii. Teratogens
6. Teratogan - Any biological, chemical, or physical agent capable of causing birth defects 7. Critical Period - A specific time during development when damage may occur or certain processes should take place xviii. Drugs

8. Almost all drugs cross the placenta freely
xix. Smoking
9. Fetal tobacco syndrome is characterized by retarded fetal growth resulting in lower birth weight and hyperactivity xx. Alcohol
10. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome - Condition found in some children born to others who drank during pregnancy, characterized by lower birth weight, small head circumference, and mental retardation xxi. Ultrasound

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