Psychology 111

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Pennebaker: “confession is good for the soul”
Self-disclosure enormous psychological and physical benefits The feelings of shame and guilt decreased
Criminals confessed became more relaxed even though they knew they would have to face the consequences A stronger immune system response the production of white blood cells and antibodies increases Nondisclosure: “let sleeping dogs lie” (sometimes better) Children and sexual abuse

Difficult because adults either took no action or didn’t believe them the adult failed them Revealing can be harmful if judgmental and unsupportive

* Psychological advances and theories are supported and based off of empirical observations * Goal: don’t accept the statement (folklore and common sense) blindly Need to know when to apply (fact v. fiction)

* Extra Credit:
* Identifiable picture of how you currently look
* Name and information (some interesting facts – major, interest in psych for what reason, etc.)

* Common sense = unreliable
* Lance Armstrong confessing why?
Yields erroneous conclusions
Fosters acceptance of psychomythology: the collective body of misinformation about behavior and human nature Cognitive error, careless thinking, illusions from cognitive realm

Sources of Careless Thinking and Cognitive Error:
1) Word of Mouth
False beliefs spread through generations by verbal communication Ex: alligators in the sewer
Tendency to confuse a statement with the truth of it
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* 2) Easy Answers
Everyday life – incredibly complex, nothing is simple
No quick fix/easy answer to make it better now
Ex: a program on TV that says they have a program that will help you stop smoking in 24 hours; politics and adolescent pregnancy/how to deal with it The “just say no” campaign
*
* 3) Selective Attention and Memory
Not 100% accurate in cognitive processes two people can see a situation and remember very different things We rarely perceive reality as it actually is
Our lens, biases, pre-existing beliefs before coming into the situation make us anticipate what we see *
* 4) Causation
Confusing correlation with causation
If two things go together, it doesn’t mean that one causes the other Ex: physical abuse and childhood physical abuse in childhood does not necessarily cause aggression as an adult – there can be other variables and factors involved Cant assume causes

5) Temporal Relationships
The idea if something precedes something else, it was caused by it not necessarily! The events can be completely unrelated Ex: this person became a serial killer because as a child he went to preschool Ex: I feel less depressed because I drank herbal tea earlier *

* 6) Exposure to a Biased Sample
Ex: individuals in a liberal college setting develop the notion that the rest of the world is the same liberal environment Non-random individuals
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* 7) Representatives
You evaluate two things based on some superficial relationship they have with each other Ex: I eat rice cakes when I study because they look like brains so that will boost my brain power Ex: a guy in a dark alley tells you to give him your wall, your representativeness tells you he wants to rob you

8) Media Portrayals
Inaccurate representations from the media
Depicts things being more sensational then they actually are Ex: with shootings, the media immediately said mental illness is a marker in people who are violent *
* 9) Exaggeration
Small facts in myths have been exaggerated
Ex: we only use 10% of our brains false, but it is true that we don’t use our brain to its full potential Ex: communication patterns between men and women

10) Terminology
Words used incorrectly leads to erroneous assumptions and conclusions Imprecise
Misapplication of terms leads to confusion
Ex: schizophrenia and multiple personality disorder words used interchangeably a lot, but in reality these are completely different

How about uncommon sense...
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