* psycologys story is one of ppl groping toward a better understanding of themselves * the term psychology (the study of the mind) comes from two greek words: * psyche soul
* logos the study of a subject
A new science is born: The contributions of Wundt and Hall
* psyc intellectual parents were the disciplines of philosophy and physiology * by 1870s a small # of scholars in both fields were actively exploring qtions about the mind * Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) who mounted a campaign to make psyc an indp discipline rather than a stepchild of philosophy or physiology * 1879, Wundt succeeded in est the first formal lab for research in psyc * This is why 1879 is christened as psyc’s “date of birth” * 1881, Wundt est the first journal devoted to publishing research on psyc * All in all, Wundt is characterized as the founder of psyc * Wundt’s conception of psyc was influential for decades * He believed that psyc primary focus was consciousness- the awareness of immediate experience and thus it became the scientific study of conscious experience * Between 1883 and 1893 some 24 new psyc research labs sprang up inside the US * G. Stanley Hall (1846-1924) who studied briefly with Wundt, was a particularly impt contributor to the rapid growth of psyc in America * Hall reeled off a series of “firsts” for American psyc * 1892, he was the driving force behind the est of the american psyc association (APA) The battle of the “schools” begins: Structuralism vs Functionalism * While reading about how psyc became a science, you might have imagined that psychologists became a unified group of scholars who busily added new discoveries to an uncontested store of the “facts” * Competing schools of thought exist in most scientific disciplines * In psyc, the first two major schools of thought , structuralism and functionalism were entangled in the field’s first great intellectual battle * Structuralism emerged through the leadership of Edward Titchener * Structuralism was based on the notion that the task of psyc is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related * Structuralists wanted to identify and examine the fundamental components of conscious experience, such as sensations, feelings and images * Most of structuralists work concerned sensation and perception in vision, hearing and touch * Depended on the method of introspection, the careful systematic self-observation of ones own conscious experience * Required training to make the subject the person being studied- more objective and more aware * Once trained, subjects were typically exposed to auditory tones, optical illusions under carefully controlled and systematically varied conditions and were asked to analyze what they experienced * Functionalism took a different view of psyc’s task
* It was based on the belief that psyc should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure * William James work was the chief for the emergence of functionalism * He illustrates how psyc like any field, is deeply embedded in a network of cultural and intellectual influences * Natural selection, heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive...