Psy 387 Study Guide First Exam

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The Major Issues- Chapter 1 Module 1.1
1. The Mind-Brain Relationship
a. Biological Psychology is the study of physiological evolutionary and developmental mechanism of behavior and experience. b. At the microscopic level, we find two kinds of cells: the neurons and the glia i. Neurons send messages to each other and also to muscles and glands. They have changing sizes, shape and functions. ii. Glia- which are most of the time smaller than neurons have many functions but they do not convey information over great distances. c. Physiological explanation- relates a behavior to the activity of the brain and other organs d. Ontogenetic explanation- describes how a structure or behavior develops including the influence of genes, nutrition, experiences, and their interactions. e. Evolutionary explanation- reconstructs the evolutionary history of a structure or behavior f. Functional explanation- describes why a structure or behavior evolved as it did. 2. The brain and conscious experience

g. Dualism – the belief that mind and body are different kinds of substance that exist independently iii. Defended by Rene Descartes
iv. Rejected by most philosophers and neuroscientists h. Monism- the belief that the universe consists of only one kind of substance. v. Materialism the view that everything that exists is material or physical vi. Mentalism – the view that only the mind really exists and the physical world could not exist unless some mind were aware of it. 1. Can’t be proven

vii. Identity position: mental processes and certain kinds of brain processes are the same thing, described in different terms. The universe has only one kind of substance which includes both material and mental aspects. 2. Says that mind is brain activity. Just as how fire is not a “thing” but what happens to something viii. Solipsism- I alone exist, or I am alone am conscious 3. Other people are either like robots or like the character in a dream ix. Problem of other minds- the difficulty of knowing whether other people (or animals) have conscious experiences x. Hard Problem- why and how any kind of brain activity is associated with consciousness. The Genetics of Behavior – Module 1.2

3. Mendelian Genetics
i. Genes- units of heredity that maintain their structural identify from one generation to another xi. Come in pairs because they are aligned along chromosomes xii. Gene is a portion of a chromosomes, which is composed of deoxyribonucleic acid xiii. A strand of DNA serves as a template for ribonucleic acid which is a single strand molecule xiv. Can be either homozygous ( identical pair of genes on the two chromosomes) or heterozygous (unmatched pair of genes) xv. Dominant – gene shows a strong effect in either the homozygous or heterozygous condition xvi. Recessive- gene shows its effect only in the homozygous condition j. Proteins

xvii. Enzymes- biological catalyst that regulate chemical reactions in the body 4. Sex-Linked and Sex-limited Genes
k. Sex-linked genes- genes located on sex chromosomes (usually X chromosomes) xviii. Male: XY Female: XX
l. Autosomal genes- chromosomes that are not on sex chromosomes m. Sex-limited genes- which are present in both sexes (generally on autosomal genes) but active mainly in one sex xix. Ex- breast size in women

5. Heredity and environment
n. To determine what kind of contributions heredity and environment has, researchers focus on comparing monozygotic (from one egg) twins and dizygotic (from two eggs) twins. o. Second kind of evidence is studies of adopted children to see if they relate to parents p. Third kind researchers find genes linked to a disorder q. Sometimes,...
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