This lecture notes covers unit1. 1. Introduction: M255 module: Object Oriented Programming with Java concerns on teaching the principles of Object Oriented such as objects, classes, inheritance, and polymorphism using Java language. You have two CDs in this module: • Online Application CD which has the StarOffice application, and • M255 CD that has the blueJ, microworld and others. When you install M255 CD be sure that all options are selected, just determine the folders you want to install on and follow instructions during the installation process. 2. Fundamental hardware and software concepts What is a computer? A device that accepts input, processes data, stores data, and produces output. These are the main basic tasks of a computer. Simply, any computer system is composed of computer hardware and software. The hardware components of a computer system are the electronic and mechanical parts. The software components of a computer system are the intangible parts: it is a general term of all the applications, programs, and systems that run on your computer. Software consists of sets of instructions that tell a computer how to perform a particular task. 2.1 Computer Hardware The main hardware devices are classified as: 1. Essential parts of a computer : CPU & main memory 2. Peripheral devices, which is any component of the computer that is not part of essential devices, such as: Input/Output devices, secondary storage (Storage devices). Some peripherals are mounted in the same case as processor such as hard disks, others such as printers are physically outside the computer. An input device gathers and translates input into a form that the computer can process, these are devices such as: keyboard, mouse, scanner, microphone, cardreader, and bar reader. Prepared by: Dr. Bayan Abu Shawar, AOU-Jordan
Processing data is done in a device called central processing unit (CPU). A processor is, (the brain of a computer), an electronic device about one inch square covered in plastic, in which a processor manipulates data in many ways by applying a series of actions. Output device, produces results using devices such as: printers, screens, plotters, and loud speaker. Storing data, a computer must store data so that it will be available for processing. There are two places to store data: • Maim memory (MM), which holds the programs temporarily during execution. • Secondary storage, which holds data and programs permanently such as hard-disk, floppy disks, CD's 2.2 Software Software (SW) is a general terminology; for all programs, applications and systems. The SW makes a computer useful. SW is kept on some hardware device such as the hard disk. Usually any software is written using a programming language which is called as the source code. Then this code is compiled (translated) into zeros and ones (binary digits, low-level) or bits, which make up the instructions and data that the hardware can execute. Software could be classified into: System, Program, and Application. System: the term system has different meanings depending on how it is used as listed below: 1. An operating system: is essentially the master controller for all of the activities that take place within a computer. It sets the standards for all application SW that a computer runs. (i.e. how do I configure my system to allow me using my new scanner?) 2. A computer system: a combination of hardware and software. (i.e. my system crashed 4 times last night, and I can’t figure out whether it is a hardware problem or that I game I picked up cause the problem). 3. A software system: a large piece of software which is essentially meant to run forever (no start point or end point), and has to respond to a variety of events that may occur in an unpredictable order. The system usually is composed of smaller units of SW called applications or programs which communicate with each other. 4. System Software: is categorized as...