Pre-Ib Geography Exam Review

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Pre-IB Final Examination – June 2012
Unit 2
I. Map requirements: I. Border II. Title III. Legend IV. Direction V. Date of Publication VI. Scale * Compass Rose & Angular bearings
* Cordinal Points – North,East, South,West Ordinal Points – Northeast,Northwest,Southeast,Southwest * Angular Bearing: measured in degrees in a clockwise direction from the north; written as 3 figures (i.e. 090) * Military Grid (4 & 6 digit)

* System of numbered lines; position stated by quoting numbers of the lines that intersect at the point in question * Easting Northing ; EAST TENTH NORTH TENTH
* Contour line: a way of showing elevation; usually brown lines * Steep areas – very close contour lines, gentle areas – very wide contour lines * Latitude/Longitude
* Latitude - 0°: Equator|23.5°N: Tropic of Cancer | 23.5° S: Tropic of Capricorn * Longitude - 0°: Prime Meridian | 180°: International Date Line * Scale - different types; conversions
Linear Scale| Representative Fraction Scale| Direct Statement Scale| * | * 1:50 000| * 1 cm to 10 km|
* 1 km = 100 000 cm
* Time Zones – know them & how to calculate time zone from one zone to another * From west – east: Pacific, Mountain, Central, Eastern, Atlantic, Newfoundland * Plus 1 hour, as you travel from west to east

* Global Positioning System (GPS) – what is it? How do you use it? * Revolutionary navigation system; provide location with metres or less anywhere on the globe * Canada Map:

Unit 3
* Geologic time-line (eras & major developments in each) * Precambrian Era: the earth is formed; Canadian shield is formed; bacteria & algae – only life forms * Paleozoic Era: the continents straddle the equator; first insects appear; Pangaea is formed * Mesozoic Era: Dinosaurs rule the earth; first bird & mammals appear * Cenozoic Era: Dinosaurs go extinct; first Hominids appear; first humans reach North America * Continental Drift & Plate Tectonics

* Continental drift (Alfred Wegener): 300 million years ago, all of the earth’s land masses, which were in constant motion, collided to form one supercontinent: Pangaea; could not explain how continents moved * Evidence: shape of the continents; Fossil Evidence; Rock Evidence; Glacial Deposits; Location of Coal Deposits * Plate tectonics (Canadian J. Tuzo. Wilson): the earth’s crust is divided into 12 major plates which moved in various directions by the underlaying hot mantle convection cells (mid-atlantic ridge) * Types of precipitations – Relief/Orographic precipitation; Cyclonic/Frontal precipitation; Convectional precipitation * Relief/Orographic precipitation: only in mountainous regions * Moist air rise up the windward slope & condenses as it rises & cools * Cool air descends on the leeward slope, warms up, drier climate because the clouds evaporate * Cyclonic/Frontal precipitation: only in places with hot summers +20°C (continental areas) * The sun heats up the ground, warm air rises; condensing & forming clouds & precipitation. * As the storm persists, the air cools & drags down, bringing the storm to an end. * Convectional precipitation: happens in most places

* Air masses of different pressure & temperatures don’t mix. * The warmer air will rise above the colder, dense one, creating precipitation. * Gradual upward movement=mild precipitation; Sharp upward movement=thunderstorm, hail * Landforms: the natural features on the surface of the Earth (Canadian Shield, lowlands, highlands) What are they?| Development of landforms| How do they or will they contribute to Canada| Canadian Shield (largest & oldest landform region)PRECAMBRIAN| * Pressure inside Earth folded & crumpled the Metamorphic rock * Minerals in shield rock cooled & separated into layers according to their...
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