Philosophy Notes

Topics: Deductive reasoning, Logic, Reasoning Pages: 8 (1561 words) Published: February 2, 2013
Philosophy of Knowledge
Elements of knowledge
Chapters 3 & 4
* Deductive reasoning
* Syllogesim
* Arostotle
* theory
* Humans are mammals
* Mammals are warm blooded
* So one can infer…. humans are warm blooded * If you take syllogeism into context you get modern computer * Mechanics
* Deductive = absolute truth
* Absolutely inflexible route
* Certainty does NOT = probability
* Valid deductive argument
* Strict!
* W
Valid plus true = Sound
* M
Impossible to get a false
* Picture is easier to see
* Linard Euler
* Theory
* Human = smallest
* Mammal = middle
* Warm blooded = biggest
* Why does validity have the power it does? * Cannot switch the picture or it won’t work * EX) nesting doll = only fits together one way * Form VS content

* Win the lottery = pick up and leave
* If you buy a house and got to take a shower, turn on the knob that says H on it, and only cold water comes out one can infer… * Formal problem = switched knobs or pipes
* Content problem = no hot water heater
* Logic moving into computers
* Aspects of the system are flawed
* Word, Excel, etc. are nothing but big, long, complicated deductive arguments * Computers use a system of 1’s and 0’s
* Which can easily be switched and changed by worms and viruses * Example Story:
* Police came and knocked on door early in the morning on Arthur Franklin Stewart’s door * They had gotten a computer data base
* Matched up everything (SS, DL#, etc.) with Arthur E. Stewart (computer) * Guy running around murdering people
* They didn’t even consider the small ways to match up the truth (human) * Height, weight, nationality, etc.
* Judge saw flaw in system dropped the case
* Content = human error
* Format = computer error
* To cut off terrorism
* Identification is key
* Voice, retnal scans would help
* Swabbing of DNA for databases
* But if a simple system in Lubbock Texas can be flawed with so fewer people how can we expect there to be no flaw in having 300 million people in system * Arguments invalid
* M
Formal fallacies
* Republican = mammal
* R
Democrat = mammal
* D
Republican is NOT a democrat
* Informal Fallacies
* Irrelevant =
* doesn’t matter
* If someone has a headache and you give them a book what’s it going to help * It’s not!
* Abeguity of expression = too vague
* Who is in error?
* John told henry, he had a mistake.
* Who had made a mistake? You can’t tell for sure! * Steve walked out onto his porch and watched fireworks. * Where are the fireworks?
* Cannot tell
* Arguments from ignorance
* Ignorance can be changed
* You can learn
* Stupidity can’t be changed
* Its ignorant and proud of it
* Ignorance is unavoidable though
* Astronomy is for sure fact
* Weight, height of planets, etc.
* Astrology is not...
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